« 2019. #3 (147)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 3 (147), 563—579

UDK 738:39:7.046.1 (4)

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.03.563

POTTERY IN THE IVAN FRANKO’S FOLKLORE RESEARH HERITAGE

RAKHNO Kostyantyn

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0973-3919

Doctor of Sciences in History, Leading Researcher

of the Natioanal Museum of Ukrainian Pottery in Opishne,

102 Partyzanska Street, 38164 Opishne,

Zinkiv District, Poltava Region, Ukraine

Contacts: е-mail: krakhno@ukr.net

Abstract. Ivan Franko (1856—1916), an outstanding writer, a classic of Ukrainian literature and an equally outstanding scholar, made a remarkable contribution to various fields of Ukrainian culture, including folklore studies and ethnography. His scientific heritage, studying of which is very relevant today, contains a number of published works, which featured pottery, one of the most ancient crafts of the Ukrainians. Like other ancient crafts, it was consecrated with mythology, surrounded by rites and customs and generously reflected in Ukrainian folklore. The goal of the author is to explore it. The object of the research is Ivan Franko’s folklore records, consisting of fairy tales, mythological legends, kolomyikas and other songs, sayings and proverbs, descriptions of popular beliefs and superstitions, folk medicine and charms, wedding and calendar rituals. The subject is ideas presented in them which describe the various aspects of pottery-making, the role and functions of clay and earthenware in the traditional way of life of the Ukrainians of the Boyko Region, Hutsul Region, and Pokuttya in the late 19th — early 20th centuries. The methodological basis of this research is the historical and geographical method in combination with principles and methods of historiographical studies.

The basis of the work is etiological legends, recorded by Ivan Franko. They reveal the mythological significance of pottery raw material — clay, fairy tales, proverbs, and sayings show the attitude of the people to the profession of a clay carrier, potter, pottery trader, earthenware repairer. The creation of people and animals, in particular wolves, from clay, has been described in the legends. The creators were God and devil, as usual in the Ukrainian dualistic beliefs. One of the fairy tales, recorded by Ivan Franko from his mother, reveals a story about the King Thrushbeard, where the main heroine was forced to trade pots. It was very popular in Europe. Other Ukrainian versions of this fairy tales were recorded by Volodymyr Hnatiuk, a friend of Ivan Franko. The results of the paper are that these Ivan Franko’s folklore materials throw light on the process of pottery making from clay mining and producing ceramic ware to its sale, as well as the variety of earthenware — such as a pot, pitcher, jar, poppy basin, bowl, clay necklace — and their use. The usage of crockery, including the preparation of traditional Ukrainian dishes, was shown accurately and particularly in numerous proverbs and sayings. Kolomyika songs, which Ivan Franko loved very much, were another valuable source. Different semiotic and symbolic aspects of pottery were revealed in the family and calendar customs, rituals, as well as in the therapeutic magic practice of healers and witch doctors. This magic practice could include the ritual of black magic with the use of clay figurine. Viewing the Ivan Franko’s published works shows the importance of studying his folklore-ethnological heritage from new perspectives.

Keywords: pottery, folklore, fairy tales, legends, wedding ceremonies, folk medicine, sayings, proverbs, songs, Ivan Franko.

Received 12.04.2019

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