« 2019. № 6 (150)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 6 (150), 1606—1619


DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.06.1606



ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6915-2481

Associated proffesor of Lviv National Academy of Arts,

The department of Sacral Painting,

Merited Artist of Ukraine,

Kubiiovycha Street 38, 79011, Lviv, Ukraine

Contacts: е-mail: markostko@gmail.com

Abstract. Introduction. The iconpainting of the Western Ukraine of the 16th cent. is indicateded by the appearance of iconograthers with recognisible artistic manner, bright creative individualities. Some of them left inscriptions of their own names on executed icons, though names of the most remained unknown. This article researches the preserved heritage of an iconographer with unknown name of the first half of the 16th cent., known as an author of icons from the village of Zhohatyn (now in Poland).

Problem Statement. At the collection of NML there are four icons from the iconostasis of The Archangel Michael’s church in Zhohatyn: Christ the Teacher, Image-Not-Made-By-Hands with Border scenes and two festal icons — The Nativity of the Theotokos and The Presentation at the Temple. There are also reproductions of another two icons from the same festal row — The Descent into Hades and The Dormition of Our Lady, but the place of their reservation is actually unknown. All six works are executed by one author.

For the dating of icons from Zhohatyn the result of the dendrochronological analysis of the basis of the Christ-Teacher icon became very important. It was carried out in 2006 by Polish scientists during the process of restoration of this icon (it was completely recorded with oil paints since 1859) and defined an age of wood — 1527. This allowed M. Helytovych to date icons from Zhohatyn more specifically – by 1530th years.

There are some isolated icons from other places, which were attributed earlier to the author of icons from Zhohatyn. It is «Image-Not-Made-By-Hand», an icon of unknown origin from the collection of MNK and «Archangel Mikhael with Scenes of His Deeds» from Novoselytsia (actually Slovakia, PGM).

Results. The author of the article suggests that five more icons may be added to this artist’s work. Among them is the icon «Christ the Teacher» from of Liskovate, in which the face of the Savior bears a significant resemblance to His images on the icons from Zhohatyn. The following works are two icons «The Theotokos with Prophets and Saints» from the villages of Moschanets and Bogusha. Analogies of the author’s manner are found in the depiction of the figures on the borders. In the icon of St. Nicholas with Scenes of His Life from Lodyna the artist’s manner has been revealed in the depiction of the saint’s face and hands, as well as the decor on the ground. The last proposition is a fragmentarily saved icon of St. Yuriy The Dragonslayer of unknown origin from the collection of NMK.

Conclusion. The iconograther from the church in Zhohatyn of 1530th can be considered as author of 13 pieces of the iconpaiting of the Peremyshl eparchy of the second quarter of the 16th century.

Keywords: Iconographer, icon, 16 сentury, author of icons from Zhohatyn, festal icons, the Image-Not-Made-By-Hands, Christ the Teacher, similarity of faces of the Savior, border scenes, architectural background, dating.

Received 2.12.2019


Sydor, О. (2000). Ісons of the artists Oleksiy and Dmytriy in the collection of The National Museum in Lviv. Litopys NML, 1 (6), 89—152 [in Ukrainian].
Skop, L. (2011). An author of manuscripts of The Peresopnyk Gospel — Fedusko, the iconographer from Sambir. Drohobych: Kolo [in Ukrainian].
Biskupski, R. (1982). Chosen workshops of the iconpainting of Halychyna school in XV—XVI centuries. Folia Historie Artium (Vol. XVIII, pp. 26—42). Krakуw [in Polish].
Yarema, D. (2005). The iconpainting of Western Ukraine in ХІІ—ХV сent. Lviv: Drukarski kunshty [in Ukrainian].
Yarema, D. (2017). The iconpainting of Western Ukraine in ХVI — beg. ХVІІ сent. Lviv: Drukarski kunshty [in Ukrainian].
Skop, L. (2004). An author of the icon Theotokos Hodegetria from Mraznytsya. Lviv: Logos [in Ukrainian].
Helytovych, М. (2015). An author of the icons of 1530-s from the Archangel Michael church in the village of Zohatyn. Visnyk of Lviv University: Art (Vol. 16, pp. 191—196) [in Ukrainian].
Helytovych, М. (2018). An author of icons of the 2nd half of the ХVI cent. from the Nativity of The Virgin church in the village of Liskovate on the Western Boykivshchyna. Researches of the Fine Arts, 4 64, 15—27 [in Ukrainian].
Markovych, К. (2009). The iconpainting of the artist of the middle of ХVI сent. from Lemko region, an author of the icon Theotokos Hodegetria from Uhertsi. Apologhet, 16—19, 79—86.
Markovych, К. (2009). An addition to the iconpainting works of the artist of middle of ХVI сent., an author of the icon Theotokos Hodegetria from Uhertsi. Apologhet, 20—23, 131—136. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
Helytovych, М. (2007). «The Savior Panthokrator» from Zohatyn: problems of the attribution. Litopys NML, № 5 (10), 102—106 [in Ukrainian].
Lohvyn, G., Мilyaeva, L., & Svientsitska, V. (1976). The Ukrainian medieval painting. Кyiv: Мystetsvo [in Ukrainian].
Ivanysiv, О. (1987). Church in ruin. Canada: St. Sophia Publication [in Ukrainian].
Kіosinska, J. Ikons. (1973). The National Museum in Krakow: catalogs of the collection (Vol. I) [in Polish].
Guminska, B. (2008). Gallery «Ortodox art of Old Polish Republic» (guidebook). Krakow [in Polish].
Мilyaeva, L. (with Helytovych, М.) (2007). Ukrainian icon of XI—XVIII сent. Кyiv: State collections of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Tkach, S. (1984). Icons From Slovakia. Warsaw; Bratislava [in Polish].
Kruk, М.Р. (2000). Icons of Theotokos with Child of the Western Ukraine of XV—XVI cent. Krakow [in Polish].
Winnitska, K. (2013). Icons of the XVI cent. in The Historical Museum in Sanok. Catalogs of the collection (Vol. II) [in Polish].
Helytovych, М. (2005). Theotokos with Child, Prophets and Saints. Lviv: Svichado [in Ukrainian].
Giemza, J. (2004). Icons of the ХV—ХVІ cent. in the collection of The Museum-Castle in w Lantsut. Art of the Western Ukraine (Vol. II, pp. 17—28) [in Polish].
Helytovych, М. (2008). Saint Nicholas with the Scenes of His Life. Lviv: Svichado [in Ukrainian].
Lohvyn, G. (1967). Painting of the ХІV—XVI сent. History of the Ukrainian art (Vol. 2). Кyiv [in Ukrainian].


Our authors
Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »