Archive

« 2019. № 6 (150)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 6 (150), 1408—1419

UDK271.2-523.47(477. 83-22)”15″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.06.1408

LATE XVI — EARLY XVII CENTURY. ICONOSTASIS FROM THE CHURCH OF TRANSFORMATION IN SKOLE: ATTEMPT OF THE RECONSTRUCTION AND SPECIFICATION OF THE ATTRIBUTION

HELYTOVYCH Maria

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5839-9585

Candidate of Arts, Associate Professor

Head of the department of ancient Ukrainian art

Andrey Sheptytskyi National Museum in Lviv

Svobody avenue, 20, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine

e-mail: helytovychm@yahoo.com

Abstract. The article is devoted to one of the main problems in the study of the history of Ukrainian icon painting — the formation of the iconostasis into a multi-tiered structure, which is due to the relevance of the topic. Other issues related to the study of sacral painting, such as the activity of individual masters and workshops, features of iconography, etc., are also related to the article. The purpose of the research — based on the existing works and new, not yet explored monuments, is to analyze more fully one of the most fully preserved iconostasis ensembles of the late 16th — early 17th centuries, originating from the Church of the Transfiguration in Skole. And to reconstruct it, as well as to consider its artistic and figurative characteristics. A comparative analysis of the monuments refutes the existing claim of one authorship of a large group of stylistically related monuments. The involved method of dendrochronological analysis of wood made it possible to define more precisely the dating of the icons of this style. On the basis of the systematization of the monuments of museum and private collections, as well as the icons stored in the churches, a more precise number of them are given, the wider territorial boundaries of the monuments originating from the borders of the present Lviv region are defined. For the first time, a three-tier iconostasis from the church in Skole was reconstructed on the basis of all the surviving components not yet involved in scientific circulation. Participation in its creation of several painters is justified. The connections between this workshop and the workshop that operated in the years 1560—1570 are traced. It created an iconostasis from the Assumption Church. Finally  — the most famous and most complete among the iconostasis of that time in Western Ukraine indicates a number of icons of other masters who operated in the same terrain and at the same time as the masters of the Skole complex. The article emphasizes the importance of exploring the iconostasis from Skole and the complex of related monuments as illustrative works that organically combine ancient traditions with new artistic pursuits focused on Western artistic culture. The iconographic features of the compositions of the holiday scenes are considered, the stylistic characteristics of the icons of the prayer series in comparison with other preserved fragments of the prayer series in this stylistic group of icons are noted. Based on the analysis of the new monuments, the existing assumption about the similarity of the icons of the «iconostasis workshop of the Church of the Transfiguration in Skole» with the paintings of` 1613 of the altar part of the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in Drohobych is confirmed.

Keywords: icon, iconostasis, master, tradition, iconography.

Received 7.11.2019

REFERENCES

Skop, L. (2004). Painter of the icon of the Virgin-Odigitria from Mrazhnycia. Lviv: Lohos [in Ukrainian].
Svientsitskyi, I. (1928). Galicia Ukraine Iconography of XV—XVI ages. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
Miliaieva, L., & Helytovych, M. (2007). Ukrainian icon of the XI—XVIII centuries. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
Svientsitska, V, & Otkovych, V. (1991). Ukrainian folk painting of the 13th—20th centuries: The world through the eyes of the folk artists. Kyiv: Mystetstvo [in Ukrainian].
Patriarkh Dymytrii, (Yarema). (2017). Western Ukraine Iconography of XVI — beginning. XVII centuries. Lviv: Drukarski kunshty [in Ukrainian].
Helytovych, M. (2005). Virgin with Child and Praise (Collection of Icons of the National Museum in Lviv). Lviv: Svichado [in Ukrainian].
Helytovych, M. (2005). Ukrainian icons «Savior in Glory». Lviv: Drukarski kunshty [in Ukrainian].
Helytovych, M. (2008). Sviatyi Mykolai z zhytiiem. Lviv: Svichado [in Ukrainian].
Sydor, О. (2003). Ancient Ukrainian icon from private collections. Kyiv: Rodovid. [in Ukrainian].
Biskupski, R. (1991). Icons from the Historical Museum in Sanok collections. Warsaw [in Polish].
Miliaieva, L, Rishniak, O, & Sadova, O. (2019). St. George church in Drohobych. Architecture, painting, restoration. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »