« 2018. #1 (139)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2018, 1 (139), 189–199

UDK39 (477.85)


Received 21.12.2017



Taras Yaroslav, doctor of History, professor, Candidate of Sciences in

in the Department of of the modern ethnology

of the Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

Svobody Avenue 15,  79000, Lviv, Ukraine.

Contacts: e-mail:


National University “Lviv Polytechnic”

Abstract. The article deals with public-commune mutual assistance at Pokuttia, which took place in the second half of the 19th century to the present days: toloka, klaka, pomochi, supriazh. On the basis of field material, it was analyzed how: toloka`s were made: «peel the corn», «spin the flock», «to soil the house», «pulling feathers», pomochi etc. Their organization is ascertained: the invitation to the toloka, the time of their conduct, the contingent of the participants, the menu of the dishes and the order of their presentation, the form of leisure. The significance of toloka`s for social and public life and the preservation of rural communities has been established.

 Keywords: Pokuttia, toloka, klaka, supriaha.


Vytanovych, I. (1964). Istoriia ukrains’koho kooperatyvnoho rukhu. N’iu-Jork: Tovarystvo ukrains’koi kooperatsii.
Vozniak, M. (1995). Narodnyj kalendar iz Ovruchchyny 50-kh rokiv XIX st. u zapysi Mykhajla Pjotrovs’koho. Zapysky Naukovoho tovarystva imeni Shevchenka. L’viv. Т. CCXXX. P. 303–348.
Dem’ian, H. Bojkivschyna: Materialy naukovoi ekspedytsii 1979 r. Т. 6.
Istoriia sela Yaseniv Pil’nyj. Z rozpovidej zhyteliv sela ta arkhivnykh materialiv (2010). Ivano-Frankivs’k: Misto NV.
Mokhoruk, D. (2005). Selo moie Toporivtsi: istoryko-kraieznavchyj ta etnohrafichnyj narys (Kn. 1). Sniatyn: Prut Prynt.
Pan’kiv, M. (2000). Ahrarni vidnosyny na Pokutti ta ikh sotsial’ni naslidky v druhij polovyni XIX stolittia – pershij polovyni XX stolittia. Yamhoriv. Ch. 11–12.
Romaniuk, Ya., Romaniuk, L. (2012). Zaluchchia nad Cheremoshem. Istoryko-publitsystychna rozpovid’. Sniatyn: Prut Prynt.
Solianych, D. (1932). Varvara. Khto vynuvatyj ta inshi opovidannia z zhyttia selianstva na Pokutti. Edmonton. P. 40–94.
Tarnavs’kyj, R. (2012). Toloka iak vidrobitkova renta u hospodarstvakh velykykh zemlevlasnykiv. Visnyk L’vivs’koho Natsional’noho universytetu im. I. Franka. Seriia istorychna. Vyp. 47. P. 30–43.
Skorowidz gminy Galicyi opracowany na podstawie wynikуw spisu ludnoњci z dnia 31 grudnia 1900 r. Wiedeń, 1907. S. 210–215, 292–297, 602–608, 694–700.


Our authors
Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »