Archive

« 2019. #2 (146)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, 2 (146), 403—415

UDK 726.54-035.4:72.027.03(477.83)(092)
DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.02.403

LUKA SNIGUR — LAST BUILDER OF THE BOYKO SCHOOL OF CHURCH ARCHITECTURE

TARAS Yaroslav

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7241-9466

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor

The Ethnology Institute

of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,

Head of the Department of Ethnology,

15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine

Contacts: Е-mail: etnomod@ukr.net

Abstract. This article is devoted to the outstanding builder Luka Snigur, the last master of the Boyko School of Church Architecture.

The aim of the research is determined by the availability of new sources, which indicates that we have inaccuracies regarding the dates of birth, death, authorship of built churches. The purpose of this article is error correction in the L. Snigur’s biography, showing his formation as a master builder, disclosure of architectural and planning features of the churches built by Snigur, definition the measures necessary for the worthy commemoration of the 90th anniversary from the day of his death.

Documents certify that Luka Snigur was born on November 6, 1853 and died on June`20, 1929. It was established that the builder was a respected person, highly respected bythe Church, and communities of the surrounding villages.

Particular attention has been paid to clarify the authorship of churches. Scientific researches of M. Dragan, V. Sichinsky, P. Yurchenko, V. Vuytsik and V. Slobodian list many churches built by L. Snigur.

On the basis of this material and new sources, we submit a list of Luka Snigur’s churches, built, repaired and preserved to this day.

In addition, this article briefly substantiates Snigur’s formation and development process asa master-builder. It defines architectural and constructive decisions of the upper churchesroofs, Luka Snigur’s departure from the ancient models, which was influenced by professional architects. Therefore, it was determined two periods in his work. In the first period (1876 — the end of the XIX century), he continued to develop the architectural heritage of the XVIII-th — first half of the XIX-th century, in the second period (beginning of the XXth cc. — 1920s) he departed from the traditional Boyko School under the influence of modern solutions. It is also highlighted the construction of L. Snigur’s houses, peculiarities of solving portals, doors, and decision of corners. It has been established that L. Snigur’s churches, houses and public buildings have high artistic value. His buildings are characterized by the perfection of structures and the originality of architectural forms.

The celebrations were proposed in 2019, a yearof 90th anniversary from the day of his death.

On the basis of the research, the tasks were set: to make adjustments to L. Snigur’s biography and his creative work, to specify the place of his burial and install a monument on his grave and memorial plaques on the churches he built; to explore master’s creative work in the field of construction of public buildings, iconostases and carvings.

Keywords: Boykivshchyna, Luka Snigur, Boyko School of Church Architecture, master-builder, M. Dragan, V. Sichinsky, P. Yurchenko.

Received 12.02.2019

REFERENCES

Kolomyiky. (1969). Kiev: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
Taranushenko, S.A. (2014). The Wooden Monumental Architecture of the Left-Bank Ukraine. The full edition. Kharkiv: Publisher Savchuk O.O. [in Ukrainian].
Yurchenko, P. (2007). Master Luke Snigur from Pohar. Sights of Ukraine: History and Culture, 3, 66—95 [in Ukrainian].
Dragan, M. (1937). Ukrainian Wooden churches (Ch. 1). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
Sichinsky, V. (1956). Architecture. In History of Ukrainian art (Vol. 1). New York: Naukove Tovarystvo im. Shevchenka v Amerytsi [in Ukrainian].
Kudrytskyj, A.V. (Ed.). (1992). Artists of Ukraine. Encyclopedic Handbook. Kiev [in Ukrainian].
Kudrytskyj, A.V. (Ed.). (1997). Art of Ukraine. Biographical guide. Kiev [in Ukrainian].
Pidkova, I.Z., & Shust, R.M. (Eds.). (1999). A guide to the history of Ukraine (Vol. 3). Kiev [in Ukrainian].
Ukrainian Soviet Encyclopedia. (1983). (Vol. 10). Kiev [in Ukrainian].
Kubijovych, V. (Ed.). (2000). Encyclopedia of Ukrainian Studies. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
Gordinsky, S. The artistic traditions of the Stryj region. In Strijshchina Historical and Memoirs collection (Vol. II). NY; Toronto; Paris; Sydney [in Ukrainian].
R№kowski, Grz. (2013). Ukrainian Carpathians and PreCarpathians (Western part). In Things to do. Sculptor of the Middle Ages in the Ukraine (Part V). REWASZ Publishing House [in Polish].
Yurchenko, P. (1968). Wooden architecture. In History of Ukrainian art (Vol. 3). Kiev [in Ukrainian].
Yurchenko, P. (1970). Wooden Architecture of Ukraine. Kiev: Budivelnyk [in Ukrainian].
Yurchenko, P. (1993). Master Luke Snigur from Pohar. Art, 3/4, 58—62 [in Ukrainian].
Wuyitsik V., & Slobodian, V. (2001). Materials to the dictionary of folk builders. In Notes of the Scientific Society named after Shevchenko (Vol. CCXLI: Works of the Architecture and Urban Development Commission). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
Mohitich, I. (2002). Architecture of wooden temples. Bulletin of the Institute Ukrzakhidproektrestavratsiya, 12, 8—29 [in Ukrainian].
TSDIA of Lviv. F. 201. Op. 4a. Issue 4216 [in Ukrainian].
Metrical Book of the Church of St. Dmitry village Pogar [in Ukrainian].
Book of church equipment village. Pogar [in Ukrainian].
Sichynskэ, V. (1940). Wooden buildings in the Carpathian region. Prague:

Read»

Our authors
Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »