Archive

« 2020. № 1 (151)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. № 1 (151), 117—125

UDK745.51.011.26.071.1(477.85/.87-22)”19″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2020.01.117

RICHKA MASTERS OF INLAYON WOOD. FOLLOWING TRADITIONS AND FORMALISM OF FOLK ART

CHIKH-KNYSH Bohdana

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4137-4493

Candidate of Arts (Ph. D)

postdoctoral, Lviv National

Academy of Art; associate professor,

Department of Art History and Humanities,

Kosiv State Institute of Decorative and Applied Art LNAA

32 Stephan Bandera str.,

Kosiv, Ivano-Frankivsk region, 78600, Ukraine

Contacts: e-mail: bogdana1973@gmail.com

Abstract. The Hutsul village of Richka is a unique modern center of wood carving and inlay. During the 20th century a special artistic style has been formed here, which is now considered to be traditional. The study of the specificity of forms and ornamental decoration of wooden wares is of vital importance. The aim of the study is to identify the traditional and new aesthetic features of anartistic process, to find out the factors and grounds for formalism in folk art. The object of the study is the wooden wares of Richka masters, and the subject is the artistic features and the process of interpenetration of traditional and new aesthetic characteristics of the folk art of Hutsulshchyna. The methodological basis of the research is the historically systematic analysis of the cultural context, a comparative characteristic based on art analysis. The basiс sources of research are the examples of inlaid wooden wares stored in museum collections and owned by the folk craftsmen of the village of Richka. Fact-based material was recorded during field expeditions and from the published works of art critics A. Budzan, M. Stankevych, O. Solomchenko.

The exhibition «The Virtuosos of Inlay», which was going on at the Kosiv Museum of Folk Art and Way of Life of Hutsulshchyna during December 7—20, 2018, proved that contemporary Richka masters still work productively. Nine carvers from the village of Richka: Vitalii Martyshchuk, Vasyl Shmadiuk, Mykhailo Kishchuk, Oleksii Kishchuk, Petro Kishchuk, Ivan Bilak, Vasyl Sharaburiak, Mykola Grepyniak and Vasyl Grepyniak presented inlaid wooden wares with distinctive local style.

The inlay with wood of different colors and tone,pearls and beads is typical of wares of modern Richka masters. The surfaces of the inlaid wooden wares are smooth, the forms are laconic. Ornamental compositions of geometric forms are overloaded with various details and inlaid elements. The wooden wares of modern masters of the village of Richka are highly decorative, with indistinctly turned forms, their authors try to follow the traditional ornaments, use inlay with different materials. Excessive decoration is often not justified — colorful ornaments do not go well with the form, have no rhythm of composition. In general, one can notice similar pattern of compositions and the formal use of the means of decoration. However, among a large number of contemporary Richka masters’ wooden wares one can find artistic samples that deserve continuation of Hutsul traditions.

Keywords: folk masters, tradition, formalism, inlay.

Received 13.01.2020

REFERENCES

Shukhevych, V.O. (2018). Hutsulshchyna (Vol. 2). Kharkiv: Oleksandr Savchuk [in Ukrainian].
Budzan, A.F. (1960). Wood carving in the western regions of Ukraine. Kyiv: Vydavnytstvo AN Ukrainskoi RSR [in Ukrainian].
Solomchenko, O. (2010). Marko Mehedyniuk (Pp. 137—150). Kosiv: Pysanyi Kamin [in Ukrainian].
Stankevych, M.Ye. (2002). Ukrainian artistic wood. Lviv: Instytut narodoznavstva NAN Ukrainy [in Ukrainian].
De Moran, A. (1982). The history of decorative and applied art. Moskva: Iskusstvo [in Russian].
Siredzhuk, P. (1999). From the chronicle of the settlement of Halych Hutsulshchyna. In М. Domashevskyi. The history of Hutsulshchyna (Vol. IV, pp. 124—150). Lviv: Logos [in Ukrainian].
Molyn, V.D. (2013). An outstanding master Marko Mehedyniuk. Visnyk LNAM (Issue 23, pp. 228—236) [in Ukrainian].
Domashevskyi, M. (1995). Artistic wood carving. In М. Domashevskyi. The history of Hutsulshchyna (Vol. I, pp. 245—290). Lviv: Logos [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »