Archive

« 2020. № 5 (155)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. № 5 (155), 1037—1050

UDK 638. 14 : 39] (477. 83 + 477. 86 /. 87)

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2020.05.1037

ТRADITIONAL BEEKEEPING OF UKRAINIANS OF HUTSUL REGION: THE SPECIFICS OF PRODUCTION CULTURE

MOVNA Ulyana

  • Doctor of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher
  • the Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy
  • of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • the Department of Historical Ethnology,
  • Svobody Avenue 15, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine
  • Contacts: e-mail: movlana@ukr.net

Abstract. The article is the first attempt to outline the main features of the economic and production complex of traditional Hutsul beekeeping as a significant segment of Ukrainian ethnic culture on the basis of materials of own field searches and literature and museum sources, which determines its relevance. The object of our research is traditional beekeeping of Hutsuls, and the subjects are processes, which creates technology culture of apiculture of Ukrainians in Hutsul region and artifacts as the result of them (apiary arrangement, bee keeping, reseiving of honey and their application, types of beehives and features of their design, types of beekeeper equipment). The study used comparative, typological, structural-functional methods and method of field researchers.

The important role of types and designs of traditional frame hives (logs, hollows, straw baskets) and modified rational dwellings for bees (Slavs, Ukrainian beds, Dadans) is emphasized. The focus is on the folk experience of insect breeding — traditional knowledge of the apiary, the annual production beekeeping calendar (swarming, wintering outdoors and indoors, methods of prevention and treatment of diseases). The significant value in the process of optimization of care of bees is played by apiary accessories — protective face nets, chimneys, pumps, robes, honeycombs. The process of obtaining bee products is considered, in particular technological methods of honey harvesting, depending on the type of beehives, and methods of production operations waxing. Obtaining honey and the feasibility of its economic use was dictated by the appropriate technological methods of honey collection in collapsible and non-collapsible hives, time and conditions of storage of sweet product.

Since there have been no research works conducted on that subject, the article is based on the field materials gathered by the author. After analyze the significant number of ethnographical field and sporadic bibliographical sources the historical roots and prevalence are proved and the regional specifics of beekeeping as a traditional economic occupation of Hutsuls are clarified.

Keywords: beekeeping, industrial culture, beehive, traditional, Hutsul.

Received 31.07.2020

REFERENCES

  • Movna, U. (2000). From the history of beekeeping in the Carpathians and Prykarpattia orms of beekeeping from ancient times to the XVII—XVIII centuries). The Ethnology Notebooks, 5, 851—859 [in Ukrainian].
  • Rozov, V. (1928). Ukrainian diplomas (Vol. 1). Kyiv [in Uk­rainian].
  • (1895). Sources for the history of Ukraine-Rus’ (Vol. 1). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Mandybura, M. (1978). Polonyn economy of the Hutsul region in the second half of XIX
  • 30’s of the XX centuries. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
  • Falkowsky, J. (1937). The western border of the Hutsul region. Lviv [in Polish].
  • Archive of the Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Archive of the IN NANU). F. 1. Op. 2. Act. 413. (Movna U. Traditional beekeeping. Field materials from the Hutsul region, 1995) [in Ukrainian].
  • Archive of the Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Archive of the IN NANU). F. 1. Op. 2. Act. 435. (Movna U. Field materials on traditional beekeeping of Hutsul region. Kosiv, Nadvirna districts. 1997) [in Ukrainian].
  • Zakrevska, J. (Ed.). (1991). Hutsul region: linguistic studies. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
  • Shukhevich, V. (1908). Hutsul region. Materials on Ukrainian ethnology (Part 5, vol. 7). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Falkowsky, J. (1938). The north-eastern border of the Hutsul region. Lviv [in Polish].
  • Leonovich, S. (1932). The village of Chornoholova is under economic and social review. Subcarpathian Rus’, 4—5, 32—35 [in Ukrainian].
  • (1991). Beekeeping. Small encyclopedia. Moscow: Soviet encyclopedia [in Russian].
  • Witwicky, S. (1863). Historical outline about Hutsuls. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Shukhevich, V. (1899). Hutsul region. Materials on Ukrainian ethnology (Part 1, vol. 2). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Schnaider, J. (1906). Pechenian people. Ethnographic sketch. People, 12, 277—308 [in Polish].
  • Ciesielsky, T. (1901). Beekeehing (Vol. 2) [in Polish].
  • Starchuk, I. (1932). Apiary in the village of Babyn (Kosiv region). Life and Knowledge, 7, 197—198 [in Ukrainian].
  • Dragan, M. (1937). Ukrainian wooden churches. Genesis and development of forms (Vol. 1). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Archypenko, J. (1927). On the question of a uniform framework for the Slavonic peoples. Ukrainian beekeeping, 7, 80—81 [in Ukrainian].
  • Danyliuk, A. (1980). Museum of folk architecture and life in Lviv: a guide. Lviv: Kamenyar [in Ukrainian].
  • Skurativsky, V. (1980). Traditional forms of beekeeping buildings and complexes in Ukraine. Folk art and ethnography, 6, 42—50 [in Ukrainian].
  • Movna, U. (2006). Customs and rites of Ukrainian beekeepers of the Carpathians and Prykarpattia of the XIX — beginning of the XX century. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Myloradovych, V. (1991). The life of a Lubny peasant. Ukrainians: folk beliefs, superstition, demonology (Pp. 170—341).Kyiv: Lybid [in Ukrainian].
  • Wolsky, K. (1960). From research on ancient beekeeping techniques in the San basin. Przemysl [in Polish].
  • Movna, U. (2007). Honey in the Carpathians and Prykarpattia: a retrospective view. Boykivshchyna (Vol. 3, pp. 324—329) [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

On bessarabian and moldavian ukrainians in the studies of historical ethnography
The article has thrown some light upon a sum of scientific findings got during XIX to XXI cc. in historio-ethnographic studies of Bessarabia and Moldavian Ukrainians. In the pre­sent paper has been given author’s answer to the problem of lacking progress as for the numerous themes concerning Ukrainians. State and achievements of the research-works in Ukrainians’ material and spiritual culture by the scientists of Moldavia and Ukraine through the years of independence has been exposed.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »