2020 #6 Mushketyk L.

« 2020. # 6 (156)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. # 6 (156), 1328—1343

УДК 398:392.37(=161.2)

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2020.06.1328


  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5958-0044
  • Doctor of Phylological Sciences, Corresponding Member
  • of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • Leading Researcher of the Maxim Rylsky Institute
  • of Art Studies, Folklore and Ethnology
  • National Academy of Scienses of Ukraine
  • 2-B, Mykilsko-Slobidska str., 02002, Kyiv, Ukraine,
  • e-mail: mushketik@ukr.net


Today gender issues are becoming relevant, among others, gender and age patterns of behavior, which are studied on the examples of the existence of different communities of the past and present. Views on the man and woman purpose, their behavioral roles and moral dimensions of the expansive were reflected in folk lyric and household songs, calendar and wedding poetry, folk tales and paremias.

The purpose and objectives of the proposed study is consideration on the material of folklore works the main behavioral roles of spouses in the Ukrainian family of the XIX — early XX centuries, analysis of oral poetic plots and motives, characters, etc. in the context of gender relations, customary law, religious postulates, universal moral and ethical criteria.

The method of work has a complex, interdisciplinary character, among others the methods of ethnoethics and ethnopsychology, principles of philological, imagological analysis are applied. The object of research is the plots and motives of folklore works, which deal with the division of labor and responsibilities, the situation of «additional confrontation» in the family.

The subject is an artistic reflection of the views of the peasantry on the purpose of husband and wife, their joint representation of those virtues that were considered ideal in society.

Folklore depicts mainly the problems of a failed marriage, an unhappy marriage, descriptions of the suffering of both women and men. Society’s rejection of divorce led to another, greater sin — the murder of a husband or wife, which is verbalized in the artistic space of folk ballads. The formed division of labor and responsibilities had a significant moral content, its purpose was to raise the authority of the man as head of the family, to preserve its prestige (stories «about women’s and men’s work»). The community was also condemned for marital fidelity in marriage, the tendency to adultery is traditionally ridiculed by the people in anti-religious works, shameful songs and songs about the relationship between godparents, old husband and young wife, and so on.

The novelty of the work is to attract new data to the study of ethnoethics, gender and age behavioral roles in peasant society.

Keywords: spouses, behavioral roles, folklore, genres, women’s destiny, work, betrayal.


  • Antonovych, V., Todiychuk, O., & Ulianovskyi, V. (2 eds.). (1995). Three folk national types. My confession: Selected historical and journalistic works (Pp. 91—101). Kyiv: Lybid [in Ukrainian].
  • Petrov, V. (1928). New Ukrainian versions of the legend of the evil women origin. Ethnographic Bulletin (Vol. 6, pp. 55—66). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Krasikov, M. (1998). «Stupid woman» in Slobozhan folk tales. Gender research, 1, 271—284 [in Russian].
  • Franko, I. (1955). Female captivity in Rus folk songs. In Selected articles on folk art (Pp. 107—142). Kyiv: Vyd-vo AN URSR [in Ukrainian].
  • Hnatyuk, V. (1922). A song about an infertile mother and unborn children. Notes of Taras Shevchenko scientific society (Vol. 133, pp. 173—224) [in Ukrainian].
  • Dei, O. (Ed.). (1988). Ballads: Family and household relations. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
  • Gaidai, M. (1972). Folk ethics in the folklore of the Eas­tern and Western Slavs. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukra­inian].
  • Skrypnyk, N. (2014). Verbalization of concepts of folk morality in Ukrainian folklore. The thesis for the academic degree of Doctor of Philological Sciences. Ivano-Frankivsk[in Ukrainian].
  • Razumtseva, H. (2004). Moral and ethical views of the Ukrainian people according to folklore sources: axiological aspect. The thesis for the academic degree of Doctor of Philosophical Sciences [in Ukrainian].
  • Sukovata, V. (2004). Satirical images of women in fairy-tale folklore: gender aspect. Ethnographic notebooks, 5—6, 763—768[in Ukrainian].
  • Mushketyk, L. (2014). Characters of the Ukrainian folk tale. Kyiv: Ukrainskyi pysmennyk[in Ukrainian].
  • Kis, O. (2012). Woman in traditional Ukrainian culture. Lviv: Instytut narodoznavstva NAN Ukrainy[in Ukrainian].
  • Ihnatenko, I. (2012). Woman and her unborn children: traditional beliefs and ideas of Ukrainians about contraception and abortion. In Folk culture of Ukrainians: human life cycle: historical and ethnological research: in 5 vols. Maturity: Femininity, female subculture (Vol. 3, pp. 244—257).Kyiv: Duliby [in Ukrainian].
  • Kopanytsia, L. (2012). On Ukrainian sensitivity as a spiritual and cultural dominant. Literature. Folklore. Problems of poetic (Issue 36, pp. 137—144) [in Ukrainian].
  • (1872). Proceedings of an ethnographic and statistical expedition to the Western Russian Territory, equipped by the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. South-West Department. Materials and research collected by P. Chubinskiy (Vol. 4, 2010; Vol. 5, 2011. Vol. 7, 2011). SPb.: Issued by Bezobrazov and company [in Russian].
  • Tantsura, G. (Ed.). (1965). Yavdokha Zuikha Songs. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
  • Kostomarov, N. (1890). Family life in the works of the South Russian folk song creation. Literary heritage. Autobiography of N. Kostomarov: Poems, scenes, historical passages, Little Russian folk poetry, the latest work (Pp. 287—477). SPb. [in Russian].
  • Dei, O. (Еd.). (1981). Wooden miracle: Folk tales. Uzhhorod: Karpaty [in Ukrainian].
  • (1982). Ukrainian folk songs in the records of Sofia Tobilevych. Kyiv: Naukova dumka[in Ukrainian].
  • (1854). Folk South Russian songs: Published by Amvrosiy Metlinsky. Kyiv: Universit. tipogr.[in Ukrainian].
  • Miloradovych, V. (1904). Life of a Lubny peasant. Kiev antiquity, 5, 264—304 [in Russian].
  • (1962). Ukrainian songs published by Maksymovych. Kyiv: Vyd-vo AN URSR[in Ukrainian].
  • Svientsitskyi, I. (1912). Funeral mourning. Ethnographic collection (Vol. 31—32, pp. 1—129)[in Ukrainian].
  • Chebaniuk, O. (Еd.). (1987). Calendar-ritual songs. Kyiv: Dnipro[in Ukrainian].
  • Drahomanov, M. (1918). New Ukrainian songs about public affairs (1764—1880). Kyiv: Krynytsia [in Ukrainian].
  • Dykariv, M. (1896). Black Sea folk tales and anecdotes. Ethnographic collection (Vol. 2, pp. 1—50) [in Ukrainian].
  • Zinchuk, M. (2003). Ukrainian folk tales: tales of the Hutsul region (Book 1). Lviv: Svit [in Ukrainian].
  • Jefimenko, A. (1884). Study of people’s lives. Common law (Issue 1). Moskva [in Russian].
  • Balushok, V. (1998). Rites of initiation of Ukrainians and Ancient Slavs. Lviv; New-York [in Ukrainian].
  • Hnatiuk, Volodymyr. (1902). Galician-Russian folk legends. Ethnographic collection (Vol. 1, 2, XI, XII). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Dragomanov, M. (Ed.). (1876). Little Russian folk tales and stories. Kyiv: Izd. Yuho-Zap. Otdela Imp. Heohr. Obshch-va [in Ukrainian].
  • (2001). Bandurka: Ukrainian shameful songs in the records by Z. Dolenha-Khodakovskiy, M. Maksymovych, P. Lukashevych, M. Gogol. Kyiv: Dnipro [in Ukrainian].
  • Levchenko, M. (Еd.). (1928). Tales and stories from Podillya: In the records of 1850—1860 (Issue I—II).Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Berynda, O. (Ed.). (2010). Christian morality in Ukrainian oral poetry. Lviv: PAIS [in Ukrainian].
  • (2003). As it was a long time ago: Legends, stories, tales and parables of Transcarpathia in the records of I. Senko. Uzhhorod: Zakarpattia[in Ukrainian].
  • Hlanta, I. (Ed.). (1982). Truth and Wrong: Tales. Uzhhorod: Karpaty [in Ukrainian].
  • Dmytrenko, M. (Ed.). (1988). Humorous and satirical songs. Kyiv: Dnipro [in Ukrainian].
  • Barag, L., Berezovskiy, I. Kabashnikov, K. & Novikov, N. (Ed.). (1979). Comparative Index of Plots: East Slavic Tale. Leningrad: Nauka [in Russian].
  • Hans-Jörg, Uther. (Ed.). (2004). ATU — The Types of International Folktales: A Classification and Bibliography. Based on the system of Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson (Part I—III). Helsinki.


Our authors
Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »