« 2021. # 2 (157)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2021. # 2 (158), P. 440—450

УДК 741(477)”1941/1945″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2021.02.440

Yuliya MAYSTRENKO-VAKULENKO

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9796-7781
  • Candidate of Art History, Associate Professor,
  • Head of Department of Scenography and Screen Arts,
  • National Academy of Fine Art and Architecture,
  • Voznesensky Descent, 20, Kyiv, 04053, Ukraine,
  • e-mail: ymaystrenko-v@ukr.net

DRAWING OF UKRAINIAN ARTISTS DURING EVACUATION (1941—1945)

Problem statement. During the Second World War, drawing became one of the dominant arts, along with propaganda graphics and posters. The flowering of this art in the works of many artists of the war period was possible not only due to the technical availability of drawing materials, but, primarily, the intimacy, individuality, and special privacy of drawing. Various life circumstances: serving under the conditions of front, rear or occupation caused certain differences in the style, genre and drawing technique of Ukrainian artists. Most previous studies tend to consider the drawing heritage of artists of the war period in a generalized sense, without emphasizing the difference between the work of artists during evacuation and those serving at the front.

The purpose of the paper is to determine the circle of Ukrainian artists; study the genre, artistic and stylistic structure, as well as materials and techniques of drawings created by artists of those years; identify peculiar properties of the reproduction of temporal and spatial categories in the drawings of Ukrainian artists during evacuation.

The methodology of the paper rests upon the principles of historicism. A combination of comparative, historical and cultural and contextual scientific methods, as well as figurative and stylistic, systematic and comparative analysis, has been applied.

Scientific novelty. The main genres the artists tend to use during evacuation were landscape and portrait, and the dominating means of expression was the tone. The only exception to the above is the work of Kost Yeleva, a student of Mykhailo Boychuk, for whom a constructive, laconic line has always been the foundation for creating an image. The works of some artists, who were in the republics of Central Asia, in particular Vasyl Kasiyan, had the features of ethnography. Conclusions. It was drawing that became the sphere in which artists felt as free as possible to express their creative individuality in the hard times of evacuation. Kost Yeleva, Vasyl Kasiyan, Karpo Trokhymenko, Oleksiy Shovkunenko, Oleksandr Pashchenko, Ibrahim Litynskyi, Ilarion Pleshchynskyi, Havrylo Pustoviyt, Yosyp Daits, Khaim Freidin, Oleksandr Postel, Leopold Levytskyi, Borys Pianida, Mykola Riabinin, and Valentyn Bunov played an important role in the development of drawing art. The only possible style of those days, socialist realism, realized in the front-line sketch primarily in the fixation of the moment and a certain frame, gained greater emotional depth and duration in the drawings of evacuated artists.

Keywords: Ukrainian drawing; sketch, Second World War; evacuation; portrait; landscape; genre.

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