The Ethnology Notebooks. 2021. № 6 (162), 1322—1334
GENESIS, TYPOLOGY AND DISTRIBUTION OF LOG HAYLOFTS IN THE WESTERN CARPATHIANS IN THE FIRST HALF OF XX CENTURY
- ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3828-1835
- Doctor of Philosophy, Researcher at the Institute of Ethnology
- of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
- Department of Social Antropology,
- Svobody Avenue 15, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine
- Contacts: e-mail: I.Boyko@nas.gov.ua
- ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8451-5957
- Doctor of Philosophy, lecturer, University of Wroclaw,
- Faculty of Earth Science and Environmental Management,
- Department of Regional Geography and Tourism,
- Street Z. Cybulskiego 32, room 152, 50-205 Wroclaw
- Contacts: e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. Introduction: The authors aim to find out the morphological and functional features of traditional log haylofts in the Carpathians, to develop their typology, to find out the genesis and distribution, basing on the analysis of archival sources and their own field materials. The object of study is a log hayloft; the subject: their design and functional features. The methodological basis of the article is historical-genetic and cross-cultural analysis. The study area includes the Western Carpathians within Slovakia, Poland.
As can be seen from the material, haylofts were not a specialty of the Carpathians, they occurred in many mountainous, foothill, hilly and swampy regions of Central Europe, as well as in the area of mixed forests and taiga of northern and northeastern Europe (Russia, Sweden, and Finland). In the study region, they were located mainly in the Inner Sub-Province of the Western Carpathians (most of Slovakia), locally in the Inner Sub-Province of the Eastern Carpathians (Romania). The analysis allowed the selection of different morpho-functional types of haylofts, to reveal their genesis and distribution. The main types were: a) haylofts — «kolibky» (huts), b) haylofts — «stodolky» (barns). The kolibky (huts) were built on the basis of a vatag’s hut (cheesemaker’s huts on a dairy farm), stodolky (barns) — on the basis of barns, where sheaves were stored and threshed, and on the basis of a fenced haystack (slc. «plevinets»). In the Carpathians there were also haylofts, which arose on the basis of primitive stables. Thus in the 20th century in different regions of the Carpathians there was both the transformation of the stable into a hayloft and the evolution of the hayloft into a seasonal stable; respectively, there was a transformation of meadows into glades or glades into meadows. The article highlights the features of mountain haylofts, accented markers of the Carpathian region. Carpathian features are: 1) a large percentage of haylofts of the «kolibka» (hut) type; 2) not building walls of stone, roof without rafters; 3) the spread, even in the same areas, of several types; 4) a unique Carpathian phenomenon is the use of a hayloft as a temporary housing and production complex during the temporary transformation of the hayfield into a dairy farm.
Keywords: Carpathians, log hayloft, barn, hut, phenilia, meadow farms, vatag’s hut.
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