« 2022. # 6 (168)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2022. № 6 (168), 1255—1271

UDK [930.2:[711.4:711.559.6]:911.375](477.4-15)”13/14″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2022.06.1255

THE FORMATION OF DEFENSIVE COMPLEXES AT POLYDS IN THE 14th—15th CENTURIES: PLANNING AND TIME ASPECTS

TARAS Yaroslav

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7241-9466
  • Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor,
  • Lviv Polytechnic National University,
  • Department of Architecure and conservation,
  • 12 Bandery St., 79013, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: yaroslav.m.taras@lpnu.ua

LYTWYNCHUK Illia

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4635-060X
  • master of Architecture,
  • Ph. D. student,
  • Lviv Polytechnic National University,
  • Department of Architecure and conservation,
  • 12 Bandery St., 79013, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: illia.v.lytvynchuk@lpnu.ua

Abstract. The primary attention of the article is devoted to the study of urban planning features of the formation of fortified cities of the Podilsky Principality during the reign of the Koriatovichs. The problem of the genesis of Podil cities goes back to the times of the existence of the semi-independent Podil principality of the Koriatovichs, at the time when many of these cities were founded and potentially had common features in the urban planning aspect. Despite the great interest in this region’s medieval history and the history of urban planning, there remains a need for more work devoted to the urban development of Podil cities and their fortifications of defined chronological boundaries. Targeted analysis of the research subject by other authors from the architecture and urban planning field was not conducted. The authors set a goal of summarizing the results of the latest historical and urban studies of the fortified cities of the historical Podillia of the XIV—XV centuries. And based on the analysis of their planning structures, find out the time and features of the formation of urban defense complexes. The authors of the article understand the «urban defense complex» as a set of fortification structures and related spatial planning structures of fortified components of a historic city, such as a castle (a castle, a fort), posts (suburbs), midtowns, suburbs, which work in a single system defense of the city. A list and table of historical Misses of the Principality of Podolsk (representative sample) were compiled based on historical sources. It was decided to divide them into three groups according to the time of establishment — before the Principality of Podilsk, during its existence, and after its termination. After the historical-geographic survey of the cities of Podil, the next stage of the research is architectural and urban planning research, for which the state of preservation of the historical planning structures of the defensive complexes of the cities was determined. The analysis of the preserved urban planning relics was used, which recreated the original planning characteristics of the cities. The typological similarity of the cities of Western and Eastern Podillia (Smotrych and Bratslav) was revealed. The similarity of the planning structures of the cities of the Principality of Podilsk to the cities of Central Europe has been proven. It was found that the cities of each of the three identified groups have similar features in planning their defense complexes (castle and city center).

Keywords: Koriatovichi, Podillia principality, defense complex, urban planning structure.

Received 10.11.2022

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