« 2023. # 1 (169)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2023. № 1 (169), 250—256

UDK 821.161.2-14.09:[784.71:355.425(477.8)”19″УПА]

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2023.01.250

HEROISM OF REBEL SONGS

SOKIL Hanna

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8352-2124
  • Doctor of Philological Sciences, Professor,
  • Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,
  • 1,Universytetska Street, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: gan.sokil@gmail.com

Abstract. The article investigates the heroic content of the songs of the OUN-UPA period, glorification and exaltation of the participants of the liberation struggle. The dominant positions of military heroism as the embodiment of ethno-cultural values of Ukrainians are considered. Currently, during the period of active struggle against the Moscow invaders, studies of the heroic deeds of Ukrainian soldiers are particularly relevant. This theme, depicted in folklore works, has become a powerful resource in the establishment of patriotism, a symbol of defiance, moral and ideological principles of a man.

The object of research is insurgent songs, and the subject is the heroic area, its interpretation as the utmost manifestation of selflessness and courage in battle, as well as the depiction and poetization of the spiritual greatness of the defenders of Ukraine.

The purpose of the proposed article is to analyze the problems of manifestation of the heroic actions in the rebel song by means of the poetic word, to consider the connection with the categories of aesthetic and tragic, as well as to reveal the image of the rebel hero through the prism of heroics. The regularity of the tragic in the conceptual-event and emotional spheres is emphasized. In the context of modern challenges, the consonance of rebel theses with the slogan «Heroes do not die» is projected. An attempt was made to compare the heroic motifs of rebel songs with the main ideas embodied in certain documents that were at the disposal of the soldiers, namely the Decalogue («Ten Commandments of Ukrainian Nationalists»); the continuity of folk song and its projection on modern events, the popularity of heroic themes and the prospects of its study for further research were emphasized.

Published folklore texts and field materials were used as the material for the article. The research methodology is based on the complex involvement of various methods, principles and concepts of socio-humanities, in particular the analytical theoretical and interdisciplinary.

Keywords: heroic, tragic, self-sacrifice, the image of the rebel, courage, valor, the domain of freedom, the spirit of rebellion.

Received 11.01.2023

REFERENCES

  • Malynska, N. (2001). Proud heroics. Canon. Literature. Ontology of heredity. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Yarmolenko, N. (2010). Ukrainian oral heroic epic: dynamics of tradition. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Sokil, V. (2003). Ukrainian historical and heroic tales: structural, semantic and poetic aspects. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Rudakova, N. (2009). Specificity of folklore poetics in reproducing the heroics of the Cossacks. Literature. Folklore. Problems of poetics (Issue 32, рp. 363—368). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Stratilat, A. (2008). The heroic image of the defender of the Motherland in Ukrainian folk thoughts and fairy tales. Literature. Folklore. Problems of poetics (Issue 30, рp. 269—272). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • (1982). Etymological dictionary of the Ukrainian language: in seven volumes (Vol. 1). Kyiv: Scientific Opinion [in Ukrrainian].
  • Frolova, K.P. (1988). Kyiv. Heroic in literature. Ukrainian literary encyclopedia (Vol. 1) [in Ukrainian].
  • Kravchenko, Ulyana, & Saliga, T.Yu. (1992). Enemies, like a flood, came without stopping… Streletskaya Calvary: an attempt at an anthology. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Demyan, H. (2003). Ukrainian rebel songs of 1940—2000 years (historical and folklore research). Lviv; Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Sokil, H. (2019). «In the spruce forest in Vyshnaya Rozhanka…». Chronicle of Boykiv region. ZSA — Canada — Ukraina (Part 1/96 (107), pp. 20—23) [in Ukrainian].
  • Lavryshyn, Z. (Ed.). (1996, 1997). Songs of the UPA. Litopys UPA (Vol. 25). Toronto; Lviv: Litopys UPA [in Ukrainian].
  • Sokil, H. (2004). Insurgent songs — heroic chronicle of the Ukrainian people. Volya and Motherland (Issue 2—3, pp. 146—152) [in Ukrainian].
  • Demyan, G. (2000). Hutsulshchyna in the liberation struggle of the OUN and the UPA. Essay on history and folkloristics (Part 4). Vyzvol’nyj shliakh (Book 6 (627), pp. 37—53) [in Ukrainian].
  • Trembitskyi, A. (2018). Rebel song — a component of oral and written culture of Ukrainians. Folk creativity of Ukrainians in space and time. Scientific collection (Pp. 534—545). Lutsk [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »