Archive

« 2023. # 3 (171)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2023. № 3 (171), 607—613

UDK 929(477)”1917/2004″Ю.Гошко:[069:39(=161.2)]

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2023.03.607

YURII HOSHKO`S CONTRIBUTION TO THE PRESERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ETHNOGRAPHIC SCIENCES

DROTSYK Anna

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0009-0004-7337-0675
  • Laboratory Assistant,
  • Ethnology Institute of the National Academy
  • of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • Folk Art Department,
  • 15, Svoboda Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: drotsyk.a@gmail.com

Abstract. Yurii Hoshko was one of those personalities who made a significant contribution to the study of the traditional culture of Ukrainians. As director of the Museum of Ethnography and Applied Arts, he took care not only of the collection and popularization of material and spiritual culture works, but also actively promoted the scientific activities of the institution’s employees.

The article’s purpose consists of an analysis of the life path and scientific heritage by the doctor of historical sciences, Professor Yurii Hoshko, and his contribution to the preservation of ethnography as a science that established the national identity of Ukrainians during the Soviet occupation. The main attention is paid to the scientist’s activity as the director of the Museum of Ethnography and Applied Arts, and his role in the growth of the institution’s status to the academic level. The main directions of the institution’s activities are outlined: the study of the material and spiritual culture of the Ukrainians, folk art and artistic crafts.

The object of the research is Yurii Hoshko’s scientific activity in the field of ethnography. The article’s subject is Yurii Hoshko’s contribution to Ukrainian ethnographic science.

The chronological frames of the article cover the years of the scientist’s life (1917—2004).

The research methodology is based on the application of historical and bibliographic methods.

Results. The study of the scientific figure of Yurii Hoshko was carried out through the prism of his scientific heritage, namely research in the field of ethnic history, culture and everyday life, folk crafts, architecture, and customary law of Ukrainians. Attention was drawn to the dominant principle of the Museum of Ethnography and Artistic Craft, which was to record the phenomena of traditional culture as accurately as possible, as well as on some aspects of Yurii Hoshko’s activity, his refutation of the theory about the «Wallachian colonization» of the Ukrainian Carpathians, substantiated in the study «Population of the Ukrainian Carpathians of the XV—XVIII centuries: Settlement. Migrations. Everyday life» for example.

Keywords: Yurii Hoshko, Museum of Ethnography and Applied Arts, Ethnology Institute of the NAS of Ukraine, ethnography.

Received 29.05.2023

REFERENCES

  • Makarchuk, S. (2014). On ethnographers of Ukrainian state museums of ethnography and artistic crafts in Lviv in 1959—1965 (reminiscences, archive materials). The Ethnology notebooks, 2, 299—309 [in Ukrainian].
  • Makarchuk, S. (1997). The Halych Ukrainian of the XX-th Century (Commemorating the 80-th Anniversary of the Doctor Jurij Hoshko). The Ethnology notebooks, 2, 68—74 [in Ukrainian].
  • Pavliuk, S. (1997). The Champion of National Science. The Ethnology notebooks, 2, 65—67 [in Ukrainian].
  • Pavliuk, S. (2017). A quarter century struggle for our future! The Ethnology notebooks, 3, 503—530 [in Ukrainian].
  • Vrochinska, G. (2010). Relevance of ethnographic science. Art historian’s autograph (Vol. 4—5, pp. 39—54) [in Ukrainian].
  • Mozdyr, M. (1997). Two in a Boat. The Ethnology notebooks, 2, 127—128 [in Ukrainian].
  • Danyliuk, A. (2001). Stories about the exhibits of the Lviv Skansen. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Danyliuk, A. (1997). Through the Prism of Time. The Ethnology notebooks, 2, 125—126 [in Ukrainian].
  • Konopka, V., & Syvak, V. (2017). Publication of research results of the subsection «People’s architecture» of the Carpatho-Balkan Commission (1976—1992). The Ethnology notebooks, 3, 748—749 [in Ukrainian].
  • Hoshko, J. (1976). The Museum of Ethnography and Artistic Crafts of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR is 100 years old. Reports of the scientific jubilee conference for the 100th anniversary of the Museum of Ethnography and Art Craft (Pp. 3—9) Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Konopka, V. (2017). Department of historical ethnology of the Institute of ethnology of NAS of Ukraine. The Ethnology notebooks, 6, 1255—1280 [in Ukrainian].
  • Hoshko, J., & Kyrchiv, R. (1976). Some issues of modern ethnographic research of the Carpathians. Reports of the scientific jubilee conference for the 100th anniversary of the Museum of Ethnography and Art Craft (Pp. 31—42) Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
  • Hlushko, M. (2000). The Research Work on Carpathian Ukrainians’ Common Law. The Ethnology notebooks, 4, 761—763 [in Ukrainian].
  • Hoshko, J. (1999). Customary law of the population of the Ukrainian Carpathians and Prykarpattia of the 14th—19th centuries. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
  • Hoshko, J. (1995). Investigation of Lemkivshchyna at the Present-day Stage. The Ethnology notebooks, 2, 68 [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »