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The Ethnology Notebooks. 2023. № 3 (171), 742—776

UDK [39:746.1/.3.016.4.012.011.26-037](477.8:474.5)”18/19″:930.2

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2023.03.742

TRADITIONAL TOWELS OF WESTERN UKRAINE AND LITHUANIA: COMMON AND DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE DECOR

NYKORAK Оlena

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0887-8929
  • Doctor in Art Studies, Professor,
  • Leading Researcher,
  • The Ethnology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • Folk Art Department
  • 15, Svoboda Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: olenanykorak@gmail.com

KUMPIKAITĖ Eglė

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4786-8144
  • Ph.D. in Technical Sciences, associate professor
  • Kaunas University of Technology
  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design
  • Department of Production Engineering
  • 56 Studentu str., LT-51424, Kaunas, Lithuania,
  • Contacts: e-mail: egle.kumpikaite@ktu.lt

MILAŠIENĖ Daiva

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1833-1217
  • Ph.D. in Technical Sciences, associate professor
  • Kaunas University of Technology
  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design
  • Department of Production Engineering
  • 56 Studentu str., LT-51424, Kaunas, Lithuania,
  • Contacts: e-mail: daiva.milasiene@ktu.lt

RUKUIŽIENĖ Žaneta

  • Ph.D. in Materials Science, lecturer,
  • Kaunas University of Technology
  • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Design
  • Department of Production Engineering
  • 56 Studentu str., LT-51424, Kaunas, Lithuania,
  • Contacts: e-mail: zaneta.rukuiziene@ktu.lt

Abstract. The article was written based on the results of the Ukrainian-Lithuanian interdisciplinary R&D projects «Ornamentation of Western Ukrainian and Lithuanian Folk Textile: Universal and Unique Parameters» (2018—2019) and «Unique Technologies of Ethnographic Textile: Experience of Preservation in Western Ukraine and Lithuania» (2022—2023) (the project have been supported by the Lithuanian Research Council and the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine [grant number in Lithuania S-LU-22-5]). The absence of a comparative analysis of the most remarkable signs of the originality of Western Ukrainian and Lithuanian towels` decor determined the relevance and novelty of the study.

The article’s purpose consists of the identification of technical parameters and artistic and stylistic originality in the decor tradition of Western Ukrainian and Lithuanian homespun towels.

The object of the study is the traditional towels of Western Ukraine and Lithuania, and the subject is the common and distinctive features of their decor.

The methodological basis of the work was an art, structural, and comparative-historical analysis of the composition schemes formation principles, and individual ornamental motifs, which contributed to the identification of folk towels decoration characteristic features in the studied areas of Ukraine and Lithuania at the end of the XIX and the first half of the XX centuries.

The article’s source base was: professional publications of Ukrainian and Lithuanian scientists in the field of traditional weaving; material items from the collections of the investigated museums of Lviv, Kolomyia, Kosov, Ivano-Frankivsk, Krylos, Radyvylov, Lutsk, Vilnius, Kaunas, Rumљiљkės, Kretinga, Klaipėda; the authors’ long-term field research materials in Ukraine and Lithuania.

Different types of Ukrainian and Lithuanian towels are analyzed in the article, and regional and local features of their structure, texture, ornament motifs, variability of composition schemes, and coloring are revealed. The unique and universal features of Ukrainian items` ornamentation in various historical and ethnographic regions of the Western region of Ukraine and similar items in Lithuania are noted.

The study of Western Ukrainian and Lithuanian folk towels proved the existence of a significant number of types of woven items and their local variants in these areas. The comparative art analysis of the Western Ukrainian and Lithuanian items decoration made it possible to identify a number of common and distinctive artistic and aesthetic features, ethnic features of identity, and local originality, which are a significant component of the national artistic heritage of Ukraine and Lithuania.

Keywords: western part of Ukraine, Lithuania, weaving, traditional towels, ornament, composition, coloration.

Received 30.05.2023

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