« 2024. # 1 (175)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2024. № 1 (175), 170—179

UDK 930.85(=162.1):655.3.006.32(477.43-21)”190/191″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2024.01.170

REFLECTION OF NATIONAL CULTURAL TRADITIONS IN THE WORKS OF POLISH INTELLIGENCE OF KAMIANTSY-PODILSKY IN THE EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY (BASED ON POSTCARDS)

PAUR Iryna

  • ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5998-8274
  • Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor,
  • Kamianets-Podilskiy National Ivan Ohiienko University,
  • The Department of Fine and Decorative Art and Restoration,
  • 61, Ohiienko st., 32300, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: iryna.paur@kpnu.edu.ua

Abstract. The study, using the information potential of postcards, analyses the influence of the Polish intelligentsia on the cultural life of Podillia in the early twentieth century. It is found that despite the active discriminatory policy of the tsarist authorities towards national minorities, the center of the cultural and artistic movement was the provincial center, where the Polish intelligentsia found ways not only to meet their own spiritual and cultural needs but also had a significant impact on the cultural and artistic processes taking place in this territory.

The purpose of the proposed study is to analyze the cultural and artistic practices of individual representatives of the Polish community: photographers and publishers — M. Greim, L. Rakowski, W. Wynarski, poetess J. Gorska, and artist M. Trzebinski, who used postcards to promote their work among the educated population of the region. The paper focuses on the cooperation of Polish and Ukrainian intellectuals in the activities of the Podillia Prosvita Society and their commemoration of the anniversary of T. Shevchenko.

The research methodology is based on the following methods: analytical and synthetic, historical and cultural attribution, figurative and stylistic, iconographic, and comparative analysis.

Conclusion. In Podillia, each of the ethnic groups built its traditional cultural communication. As a result of the uprisings of 1830—1831 and 1861, the Polish population of the region turned from a dominant nation into a politically and socially oppressed ethnic group, but the solvency and education of most of them encouraged local postcard publishers to target their printed products at them. Postcards as a socio-cultural phenomenon of the early twentieth century and an iconographic source made it possible to study the characteristic visual features of the Polish gentry as an ethnographic type; poetic (J. Gorska) and artistic (J. Greim, M. Trzebinski) works of the Polish elite; publishing activities of representatives of the Polish community of Kamianets-Podilskyi — M. Greim, L. Rakowski, and W. Vinarski; cooperation of Polish and Ukrainian intellectuals in raising the cultural and educational level of Podillia residents; ideological beliefs of representatives of the petty and middle gentry of Podillia, represented by J. Gurska, which gives grounds to further use the information potential of postcards to analyze cultural and artistic practices of the region and Ukraine as a whole.

Keywords: Podillia, Polish community, intelligentsia, postcard, culture, art, poetry, pictorial source, «Prosvita».

Received 22.01.2024

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