« 2018. #4 (142)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2018,  № 4 (142), 939–948

UDK 75.03+7.07–05(477.87) А. Кашшай

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2018.04.939

Received 07.07.2018


ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7411-0574

Matveeva Julia Genadiivna, a candidate of study of art,

associate professor

of department, is a design and fine art

The Kharkiv national university of municipal economy

of the name of О.M. Beketova

61002, Kharkiv, Kulykivs’kyi lowering, 12, Ukraine

Contacts: e-mail: matveyevoy@gmail.com

 Abstrakt. The aim of work is to understand iconographic, historical and cultural principles according to which a fabric, called in icono¬graphy «velum», began to play a significant role in the church art of the Byzantine tradition. Its origin is de–rived from real fabrics used in the Mediterranean culture. They include curtains on a ciborium, curtains on the door of a church and curtains on its columns, which originally appeared in iconography as real objects. Gradually the cultural role of curtains decreased but they remained in iconography as symbols. Since the connection with the real objects had already been lost, the images of these fabrics began to acquire fantastic exaggerated forms, but the principles of their symbolic use in iconography remained. Symbolism of the veils is associated with their primary use – separation of a sacred space, a transition from one space to another one, a combination of two symbolically different zones of an icon.

 Keywords: icon, velum, curtain, fabric, ciborium.


Beliaev, D. (Ed.). (1891). Ocherky, materyaly i zametky po vyzantyjskym drevnostiam (Knyha 1). Sankt–Peterburh: Typohrafyia Ymperatorskoj Akademyy Nauk [in Russian].
Velum. (2004). In Pravoslavnaia entsyklopedyia (T. 7, p. 537). Moskva [in Russian].
Herman Konstantynopol’skyj. (1995). Svt Skazanie o Tserkve y rassmotrenye taynstv. Moskva: Martys [in Russian].
Zhehyn, L.F. (1970). Yazyk zhyvopysnoho proizvedenyia. Moskva: Iskusstvo [in Russian].
Lazarev, V.N. (1986). Istoriia vyzantijskoj zhyvopisi. Moskva: Iskusstvo [in Russian].
Matveeva, Iu.H. (2016). Dekoratyvnye tkani v mozaikakh Ravenny: semantyka y kul’turno–smyslovoj kontekst. Kiev: Dukh i litera [in Russian].
Taft, R.F. (2010). Upadok prychascheniia v Vyzantii i otdalenie myrian ot liturhicheskoho dejstva: prychina, sledstvie ili ni to, ni druhoe? (D. Zanaveshennyj altar’). In Stat’i. (T. 1: Liturhyka, pp. 342–365.). Omsk: Holovanov [in Russian].
Fylatov, V.V. (1996). Kratkij ikonopysnyj illiustrirovannyj slovar’. Moskva: Prosveschenie [in Russian].
Shalyna, Y.A. (2000). Vkhod «Sviataia Sviatykh» i vizantijskaia altarnaia prehrada. In Lidov A.M. (Ed.), Ikonostas: Proiskhozhdenie – razvitie – symvolika (pp. 52–84). Moskva: Prohress–Tradytsyia [in Russian].
Yazykova, Y.K. (1994). Bohoslovie ikony. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo Obschedostupnoho Pravoslavnoho Unyversyteta [in Russian].
Kazdan, A. (1991). Velum. In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (Vol. 3.).  New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lamp, G.W.H. (1961). Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press.
Sophocles, A.E. (1992). Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods. In Georg Olms Verlag Hildeshem. Zыrich; New York.
Migne, J.P. (Ed.). (1863). Patrologia curcus completes. Ser. Graeca (T. 108.). Paris.
Evans, H.C., & Wixom W.D. (Eds.). (1997). The Glory of Byzantium. Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era.  New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Wessel, K. Ciborium. (1966). Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst. Unter Mitwirkung von Marcel Restle Herausgegeben von Klaus Wessel. (Band 1, pp. 1055–1068). Stuttgart: Anton Hierseman [in German].
Andrej Rublev. Blahoveschenie. Retrieved from: http://nearyou.ru/rublev/vlad/vl2blagov.html (Last accessed: 20.06.2018).
Velum. Retrieved from: http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velum (Last accessed: 20.06.2018).
Manuscript – Vat. gr. 1613. Retrieved from: https://digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Vat.gr.1613 (Last accessed: 20.06.2018).


Our authors
Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »