Archive

« 2018. #6 (144)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2018, 6 (144), 1385–1393

UDK 766:7.012-027.3(477)

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2018.06.1385

Received 21.11.2018

RELIGIOUS AND NATIONAL SYMBOLSIN VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF THE UKRAINIAN IDENTITY IN GRAPHIC DESIGN OF THE DIASPORA, 1945—1989

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8826-0135

Kosiv Vasyl Mykhailovych, Candidate of Art Studies, Associate Professor,

The Department of Graphic Design,

Lviv National Academy of Arts.

38 Kubiiovycha Str., 79011, Lviv, Ukraine.

Contacts: vasylkosiv@yahoo.com

Abstract. Based on the examples of graphic design of the Ukrainian diaspora from 1945—1989, the combination of religious and national symbols in visualizing Ukrainian identity have been analyzed. Covers of periodicals, postcards, commissioned by secular organizations, show how religious symbols accompanied visual messages about Ukraine and Ukrainians. On the other hand, in church publications, national symbols supplemented communication on religious themes. Such mutual penetration of symbolism reflected the Christian education of the authors and their audience, the practice of defining national history with religious metaphors, as well as the generally acknowledged mission of both Ukrainian Orthodox and Ukrainian Catholic churches of national identity preservation and the upbringing of patriotism in the community. For the Ukrainian diaspora, national aspects of the church life often predominated over the confessional, almost all misunderstandings and conflicts concerned the Ukrainian character of the Church. In their graphic design, Mykhailo Dmytrenko, Mykhailo Mykhalevych, Myron Levytsky, Mykola Butovych, Petro Andrusiv, Leonid Denysenko, and other authors modify established iconographic schemes and create new ones. It is noted that the most fruitful period of the construction of hybrid symbols was the preparation for the 1000th anniversary of the Christianity in Ukraine (1988) when numerous combinations of the trident and the cross appeared. Most examples show that the unique messages are constructed not so much by the semantics of the symbols (which were quite common), but with the syntax of visual communication, that is, their combinations. It is revealed that among all the visual features of Ukrainian identity in graphic design, the religious aspect evokes the greatest difference between the works of Soviet Ukraine and the Ukrainian diaspora.

Keywords: religious and national symbols, Ukrainian identity, graphic design, Ukrainian diaspora.

REFERENCES

From the Address of His Most Reverend Excellency Archbishop Hryhoriy of The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and The Head of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church abroad, presented in Chicago on July 28th, 1951, on the day of Equal Apostles Volodymyr (Ch. 3, pp. 1–2) [in Ukrainian].
Veryha, V. (1966). The Role of the Church in the upbringing of a Ukrainian person. For the Native Church. Official Bulletin of the Committee of Defense of the Rite and Traditions of the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Canada (Ch. 2—3, pp. 11—18) [in Ukrainian].
Anderson, B. (1999). The Goodness of Nation. In P. van Der Veer and H. Lehmann (Ed.) Nation and Religion: Perspectives on Europe and Asia (pp. 197—203). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Van der Veer, P. and Lehmann, H. (1999). Introduction In P. van Der Veer and H. Lehmann (Ed.) Nation and Religion: Perspectives on Europe and Asia (pp. 3—14). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mayer, T. (2005). Representation and Collective Memory. In M.E. Geisler (Ed). National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative (pp. 3—34). Middlebury, Vermont: Middlebury College Press.
Stites, R. (2005). Russian Symbols — Nation, People, Ideas. In M.E. Geisler (Ed). National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative (pp. 101—117). Middlebury, Vermont: Middlebury College Press.
Pasternak, Ya. (1941). Explanation of trident, coat of arms of Kyiv Prince Volodymyr The Great. Prague: Proboyem [in Ukrainian].
Andrusiak, M. (1947). Trident. N. d.: Vernyhora Soc. [in Ukrainian].
Kushchynskyi, A. (1983). State coat of arms of christian Ukraine. Chicago: Ukrainian Free Cossacks [in Ukrainian].
Kostomarov, M. (N. d.). Two Rus Nations. Leipzig: Ukrainian Publishing [in Ukrainian].
Lypynskyi, V. (1925). Religion and church in the history of Ukraine. Philadelphia: America [in Ukrainian].
Mirchuk, I. (2006). Worldview of the Ukrainian nation: an attempt of characteristic. In M. Shafoval and R. Yaremko (Ed.). Ivan Mirchuk. Philosophy Studies (pp. 383—407). Munich: Ukrainian Free University [in Ukrainian].
Yaniv, V. (1966). Religiosity of a Ukrainian from the ethnopsychology viewpoint. Religion in the life of Ukrainian People. Collection of Papers of the Scientific Conference in Rocca di Papa (Nov. 18—20, 1963). Papers os Shevchenko Scientific Society (Vol. 181, pp. 179—203). Munich-Rome-Paris: NTSh, UBNT, UVAN, UVU [in Ukrainian].
Armstrong, J.A. (1990). Ukrainian Nationalism. Englewood, Colorado: Ukrainian Academic Press.
Lysiak-Rudnytskyi, I. (1994). What to do? In I. Lysiak-Rudnytskyi. Historical Essays (Vol. 2. pp. 437—456). Kyiv: Osnovy [in Ukrainian].
Rudnytska, M. (1998). All-national or confessional institutions? In M. Diadiuk (Ed.). Milena Rudnytska. Articles. Letters. Documents. Collection of documents and materials on life, social and political activity, and journalism of Milena Rudnytska (pp. 160—163). Lviv: Central State Historical Archive of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Kachmar, V. (V. K.) (1978). Why, when, and where Ukrainian patriarchate movement emerged? Patriarchate, 2 (80), 13—14 [in Ukrainian].
Andrushkiv, V. (1972). Letter to the Holy Father Pope of Rome, November 30, 1971. Archive of the Ukrainian Museum and Library in Stamford. F. 1. Vol. 6. P. 1—2 [in Ukrainian].
Documentation from Cleveland. (1966). For the Native Church. Official Bulletin of the Committee of Defense of the Rite and Traditions of the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Canada, 4—5, 6—37.
Teodorovych, I. (1969). Interview (Audio). Archives of The Ukrainian History and Education Center (New Jersey). F. Mykola Francuzenko Papers. Metr. Ioan (Teodorovych) interview. Voice of America, 1969.
OSIDU. (1970, january). Samobutnia Ukraina (Ch. 37, pp. 149—150) [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »

On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »