The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 3 (147), 715—731
INTERIOR OF POKUTTYA DWELLING (the second half of the 19th — the beginning of the 20th century)
ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1900-8948
Doctor of Sciences in History, Senior Researcher
of the Institute of Ethnology
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
in the Department of Historical Ethnology,
15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine
Contacts: е-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. The typical interior of the village house of Ukrainians, which had only one living space, was formed over the centuries and characterized by a certain set of objects, their location, as well as the system of heating and lighting. According to scientists, the internal structure of the Ukrainian house (nineteenth century — R.R.) in all the regions, starting from the western part of the Kurshyna and Voronezhchyny, and ending with the eastern slopes of the Carpathians, is extremely similar. F. Vovk also noted some minor local variations of the interiors’. Therefore, the elucidation of the local specificity of the internal arrangement of the settlements of certain ethnographic regions is very relevant today. The author aims to find out the peculiarities of the internal arrangement of settlements in Pokuttya, to find out their common Ukrainian features and local specifics. The object of research is the traditional habitation of Pokutians, and the subject is its interior. The methodological basis of the study is the principle of historicism in combination with the elements of structural and functional analysis and the use of basic methods of ethnological science. The internal arrangement of the people’s homes has never been the subject of special studies. In the few publications related to the housing and construction culture in this area, this aspect is covered by the authors rather briefly, without proper analysis, therefore the author’s own materials based on researches are the basis of the work.
The internal equipment of village house in Pokuttya territory was characterized by a certain set of objects, their location, as well as a system of heating and lighting, which in general was typical for the whole of Ukraine. At the entrance to the house, on one side, in the corner there is an oven, on the other side there is a set of shelfs for dishes, between the stove and the communal wall there is stationary or mobile bed. In the corner, a diagonally opposite to oven is placed a table (or a chest), we can find icons above of it. Along the porous and dominant walls there were benches, between the table and the floor there is a chest (sometimes the last replaced the table), and next to the table there is a movable chair. At the same time, under the influence of certain factors, we observe certain local variations in the interior design. In the first place, the specifics of the interior of Pokutsky’s dwelling were manifested as a result of the influences (combination) of the Podillya and Carpathian (inherently Hutsul) traditions. At the same time, kurna heating system at Pokuttya was eliminated by the middle of the nineteenth century, which liberated the premises from smoke, in the domestic equipment of local housing of the investigated period (in contrast to mountainous regions) decorative fabrics, painted ceramics, modern furniture were widely used. The walls were painted or washed in hills regions. Colored drawing and painting were used when decorating the oven, and sometimes it was decorated with decorative tiles.
Keywords: Pokuttya, dwelling, interior, table, bed, oven, set of shelfs for dishes, shelf.
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