The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 6 (150), 1464—1481
ICONOGRAPHY OF ST. MARTYR JOSAPHAT KUNTSEVYCH IN UKRAINIAN ART OF THE EARLY 20TH CENTURY: INSPIRATION RESOURCES
ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9677-995X
Сandidate of Arts (Ph. D),
The Andrey Sheptytsky National Museum in Lviv,
Department of Ukrainian Art of the ХІХ—ХХ Centuries,
20, Svobody Avenue, 79008, Lviv, Ukraine
Abstract. Introduction and Problem Statement Josaphat Kuntsevych (1580—1623) is a Catholic Saint, the Bishop of Polotsk, protector and first saint of the Uniate Church, one of the patrons of OSBM. The portrait of St. Josaphat in the Ukrainian art of the early 20th century as exemplified by the works of such artists as: M. Sosenko, A. Manastyrskyi, P. Kholodnyi, Yu. Mahalevskyi etc., is not covered nowadays in the literature as a self-consistent phenomenon, however, some artistic representations found at those times were so successful that their popularity grows with the years and crosses the boundaries and confessional prejudices which forms the topicality of the suggested research.
The Purpose is to clarify the reasons of the artists’ reference to the personality of St. Josaphat during the stated period, trace the changes in the formation of his image, determine the degree of dependence of monuments both upon the iconography of the Saint of the 17th—19th centuries and upon the modern phenomena. Object of the research is the images of St. Josaphat performed by the Ukrainian artists. Subject of the research is the iconography of St. Josaphat.
Method. The article employs the comparative method to clarify the connection between the historical events and changes in the iconography of the saint, as to the work with the monuments, description, artistic analysis, systematization and generalization methods were also very helpful.
Results. The appearance of quite substantial amount of the portraits of St. Josaphat in the Ukrainian art of the 20th century, as compared to the previous century, is explained by the renovation of the Basilians Order. Also by the active position in the dissemination of the cult of Martyr by A. Sheptytskyi, Leader of the Greek Catholic Church and J. Slipyi, Rector of the Theological Seminary. Monuments of that period are characterized by the variation of iconography which depended upon many factors. Outlining three stages demonstrating the peculiarities of worshiping the Saint: before the World War I, the 1920s and the 1930s. During these periods two iconographic traits coexist: the first one developed as based on the samples of the 19th century, the other one demonstrates the new portraits of the Saint with a wide conceptual context, the images of the Saint, which were much influenced by the historical events of those times.
Conclusion Iconography of St. Josaphat Kuntsevych in the Ukrainian art of the early 20th century is a unique phenomenon, bright in its diversity and conceptual richness. The image advancement takes place i. e. from the closed one as a Martyr for the Faith to the broad-scaled, as a Nationwide Saint.
Keywords: St. Martyr Josaphat Kuntsevych, iconography, Ukrainian art of the early 20th century, Uniate Church, Ukrainian Saint.
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