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The Ethnology Notebooks. 2021. № 4 (160), 918—928

UDK[75.011.26:2-2:398](=161.2)”17/19″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2021.04.918

FOLK PAINTING OF THE 18—20th CENTURIES: FROM SACREDNESS TO FOLKLORE

Triska Oksana

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4717-4396
  • Candidate of Art Studies, Senior Researcher,
  • Ethnology Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • Folk Art Department,
  • 15, Svoboda Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: oksana_triska@yahoo.de

SHPAK Oksana

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9719-4432
  • Candidate of Art Studies, Senior Researcher,
  • Ethnology Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • Folk Art Department
  • 15, Svoboda Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: shpak.oksana@gmail.com

Abstract. Introduction, Problem Statement. The article examines the works of folk painting (domestic icons and folk paintings) in the rural life of Ukrainians in terms of sacredness and folklore as symbolic categories for each of the subspecies. The novelty of the subject lies in the complex analysis of works of religious and secular nature, which existed in the same ethnic environment, but experienced a rise and decline in different time perspectives. The Purposeof the article is to trace the evolution of the subject of folk painting, to investigate the dynamics of its development during the XVIII—XX centuries. Methods. With the help of the historical and cultural method, it is important to follow the change in the subject of the works. It is also important to follow the filling of the works with folklore elements using the artistic-stylistic method. The prospect of further research is to deepen the theoretical study of the categories of sacredness and folklore in art history; to form a holistic panorama of the development of home folk painting, supplemented by other painting practices.

Results. Home icons that were Christian symbols of the Ukrainian peasantry from the second half of the 18th century until the beginning of the 20th century, created a holistic artistic phenomenon, built on the repetition of traditional plots and figurative language. Prolonged constancy of themes and embodied ideologically aesthetic and artistic concepts contributed to the canonicity of the phenomenon. Its key criteria were sacredness and folklore. In the domestic icon, the folk understanding of sacredness was manifested in a simplified and symbolic disclosure of iconographic themes, and understanding of folklore — in ornamental accompaniment, the representation of folk types and conciseness (brightness) of color. Folklore of the Ukrainian folk painting of the 18—20th centuries manifested itself at the level of thematic connection with song folklore, as well as in formally plastic means (decorativeness, bright coloring, reproduction of folk types). Sacredness in the folk picture is associated with canonicity (stable repetition of iconographic and compositional schemes), «sacralization» of individual plots, which in the period of anti-religious prohibitions in the twentieth century replaced domestic icons and became symbols of spirituality.

Keywords: domestic icon, folk painting, traditional painting, works of religious and secular character.

Received 1.07.2021

REFERENCES

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