The Ethnology Notebooks. 2021. № 5 (161), 1063—1077
- ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3828-1835
- Doctor of Philosophy, Researcher
- of the Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
- in the Department of Social Antropology,
- Svobody Avenue 15, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine
- Contacts: e-mail: I.Boyko@nas.gov.ua
- ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8451-5957
- Doctor of Philosophy, lecturer University of Wroclaw,
- Faculty of Earth Science and Environmental Management
- Department of Regional Geography and Tourism
- street Z. Cybulskiego 32, room 152, 50-205 Wroclaw
- Contacts: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. Introduction: The authors aim to find out the peculiarities of traditional construction on the glades of the first half of the XX century in Boykivshchyna, based on their own field materials; to reveal the local specifics, the cultural phenomena origin. The research object is the traditional glades construction in Boykivshchyna; the subject: planning, building material, heating system, etc. The methodological basis of the article is cultural-ecological, comparative and cross-cultural analysis. The study area includes Skoliv district of Lviv region, Mizhhirya district of Zakarpattia region and Rozhnyativ district of Ivano-Frankivsk region.
As the material showed, the glades construction was a kind of «laboratory» where various types of planning and construction equipment were born, tested, and preserved. A cross-cultural analysis of the glades yards planning has indicated that most of the types of planning in Boykivshchyna, as well as in the Carpathians as a whole, have glades origin. A planning option: «hata» + «boyishche» + «staynja» probably has glade origin, which is typical for the rural architecture of the Western Boykivshchyna, where glades are almost not preserved. Thus, the authors suggest that glades in the past were widespread in Boykivshchyna almost everywhere.
Glade construction of the Carpathians has many common features, which is caused as with the functional load, the impact of construction on dairy farms, so the location of glades in the mountain-forest belt usually above the farmsteads. At the same time, the affiliation of the glades to certain natural and cultural regions also makes it possible to single out their specialty. The authors consider specific phenomena of Boykivshchyna glade construction: the rare spread of free buildings; the spread of different variants of closed buildings, among which the variant of a house (apartment block) + a stable with a door in a narrow wall, prevails. This type of yard is also characteristic of the Transylvanian-Maramures region, which probably indicates the genesis of this type in Boykivshchyna. The most diverse region, in terms of planning, application of building materials and roofing techniques, heating systems, etc., obviously should be considered Oporo-Oryavsky area.
Keywords: Boykivshchyna, glades construction, planning, hut (khyzhka), kolyba, osenivka, wintering grounds.
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