« 2022. # 1 (163)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2022. № 1 (163), 162—175

UDK [392.81:398.332.416]:930.2](477.81/.82)

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2022.01.162

KUTIA AND KOLYVO: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RITUAL DISHES (ON MATERIALS FROM WESTERN POLISSYA)

SYMKO Victorya

  • ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0823-5245
  • Student, Scholarship holder of academic scholarships
  • of the President of Ukraine 2021/22
  • a member of The Small Academy of Sciences,
  • Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Faculty of History,
  • 1, Universytetska Str., 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: victoryasymko@gmail.com

Abstract. The folk culture of Ukrainians is an issue that has inexhaustible relevance, because its importance is in preserving the Ukrainian identity in a globalized world, in explaining the historical sources of cultural phenomena. It should be noted that each topic from different areas of Ukrainian folk culture is relevant. After all, the local specificity of cultural phenomena in certain areas causes difficulty in reproducing their full picture. In this context, we emphasize the importance of collecting field materials — on interview recordings from respondents — bearers of traditions.

The purpose of the study is a comprehensive description and comparative analysis of kutia and kolyvo as ritual dishes presented in the traditional culture of Ukrainians in Western Polissya. The object of study — ritual dishes kutia and kolyvo in the folk culture of Ukrainians, and the subject — common and different in these dishes in terms of folk names, cooking, consumption, use in customs and rituals in Western Polissya.

Research methods. At the time of writing the articlethe principle of historicism was followed and general scientific and special scientific methods were applied. Among them, special attention is paid to the methods of field ethnographic research, in particular, interviewing respondents (in the conditions of quarantine, telephone interviewing was used), as well as such methods as comparative-historical, typological, structural and functional.

As a result of the research, materials from Western Polissya show that kutia and kolyvo have a clear connection, which can be traced in the household and ritual spheres. It was found that the basis of the two dishes was sweetened (honey, sugar) porridge, mainly from wheat or barley, and later also from rice. Instead, poppy seeds were added to the kutia, in some places — uzvar, nuts, raisins, oil, milk and cracklings (for a meal on January 13). It is shown that kutia and kolyvo were usually the first during ritual meals, they were tasted on three spoons, and the remains were most often fed to chickens or birds. It is investigated that in the rites of winter holidays, in which kutia appears, there are economic and funeral (kutia as food for the souls of deceased relatives) motives. Kolyvo, according to Polishchuks, is exactly the food for the souls of the dead, and as porridge appears in actions with economic motives.

Keywords: kutia, kolyvo, Ukrainians, Western Polissya, northern districts of Volyn region, Christmas, New Year and Epiphany rites, funeral and memorial rites.

Received 17.01.2022

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