« 2022. # 3 (165)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2022. № 3 (165), 657—663

UDK [7.045.011.26:165.412]:393.9(=161.2) 

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2022.03.657

ANTINOMIC GROUPS OF CHARACTERS IN THE STRUCTURE OF THE FUNERAL CYCLE OF RITUALS

KUKHARENKO Oleksandr

  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5421-1004
  • Candidate of Philological Sciences, Associate Professor,
  • Associate Professor Kharkiv State Academy of Culture,
  • 4, Bursatsky Descent, 61000, Kharkiv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: art-red@ukr.net

Abstract. Antinomies in this study should be understood as opposite pairs of symbols, subjects, topographic objects, as well as polarly directed in their activities characters. An important role in the interaction of pairs of antinomic characters is played by the process of sacralization, which becomes possible as a result of interaction of two worlds — real and the other world.

Starting with the prologue, the main character goes through the path of gaining and losing new statuses in the following sequence: dying — dead — buried — deceased. Each subsequent status forms an antinomy with the previous one. During the movement of the dead to the cemetery, two pairs of antinomic concepts are revealed: the dwelling of the living — the settlement of the dead, the pit — the grave.

From rite to rite, more and more groups of people take part in the ritual action, receiving a certain dose of sacralization. At the same time, those who have already gone through the previous rites are contrasted and represent an antinomic dependence with those who are involved in the ritual action for the first time. So antinomic characters in the prologue are the priest, as a representative of the real world, and the old women who are identified with the afterlife. In the rite of preparation for burial, an antinomic pair is formed between family members of the deceased and neighbors, friends and young people who «guard the soul»; a funeral at home — family and close relatives, a memorial dinner — between the participants of the rite (the real world) and the beggars (the afterlife) who are wined and dined outside.

The last antinomy forces to change the wording of the nature of action in one episode, and to move the culmination from the second episode to the fourth — visiting and wining and dining of the elders. Due to this transformation, the structure of the memorial dinner undergoes fundamental changes, the culmination moves from the beginning of the rite to its end, however the general structure of the whole ritual cycle acquires additional harmony and functionality.

Keywords: Ukrainian ritualism, family rites, funeral rite, structural and functional method, antinomies.

Received 6.06.2022

REFERENCES

  • Levi-Stros, K. (1985). Structural antropology. Moskva: Glav. red. vostochnoy literatury [in Russian].
  • Gennep, A. (1999). Obryady perekhoda. Sistematicheskoe izuchenie obryadov. Moskva: Vostoch. lit-ra [in Russian].
  • Propp, V. (2001). Morfologiia volshebnoi skazki. Moskva: Labirint [in Russian].
  • Terner, V. (1983). Simvol i ritual. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].
  • Kukharenko, O. (2018). Funeral Ceremony in the System of Structural-Functional Studies of Family Objectives. Paradigm of Knowledge. Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal, 2, 132—144.
  • Kukharenko, O.O., & Kukharenko, A.V. (2019)., Creation of the structure of the cycle of Ukrainian traditional funeral rites. Culture of Ukraine(Issue 64, pp, 185—194) Ukrainian].
  • Volkenshtejn, V. (1929). Dramaturgy. Method for the study of dramatic works. Moscow: Federation, [in Russian].
  • Baiburin, A.K. (1993). Ritual in Traditional Culture: Structural and Semantic Analysis of East Slavic Rites. St. Petersburg [in Russian].
  • Benkovskii, I.F. (1896). Death, burial and afterlife according to the concepts and beliefs of the people. Kievskaja starina, 9, 229—261 [in Russian].
  • Guzii, R.B. (2007). From folk thanatology: Carpathian investigations. Lviv: Ethnology Instytut of NAS of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
  • Sventsytskyi, I.S. (1910). Funeral mourning and church-religious poetry. Notes of the Shevchenko Scientific Society (Vol. 93, pp. 32—53; vol. 94, pp. 5—39)[in Ukrainian].
  • Sventsytskyi, I.S. (1912). Funeral mourning. Ethnographic collection (Vol. 32, pp. 1—129) [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »

On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »