The Ethnology Notebooks. 2022. № 5 (167), 1013—1040
- ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3360-513X
- Postgraduate student of the Departmentof Historical Ethnology,
- Ethnology Institute оf the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
- 15 Svobody ave., Lviv, Ukraine, 79000,
- Contacts: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. The role of Ukrainian women in the army has repeatedly been the subject of research by scientists. However, these studies relate more to the period of the First and Second World Wars. The modern Russian-Ukrainian war introduced many innovations in changing perceptions of Ukrainian women in the army. Considering the fact that the war is still going on, history is still being written, and therefore there are not many studies specifically about the modern period. This determines the relevance of this topic.
In this work, the author sets herself the goal of clarifying the specifics of the various roles of women in the war: as soldiers, as medics, as volunteers and household keepers: soldier’s wife, mother, sister.
The object of the study is a Ukrainian woman, and the subject is the imagery of her role during the war.
The methodological basis of the research is an interdisciplinary approach, which significantly expands the boundaries of research perspectives. Oral history as a source and method plays a key role in the study of this issue.
The territory of the study covers the entire modern territory of Ukraine. Chronological boundaries of the study: 2014 (the beginning of the Russian-Ukrainian war) and to the present (including the period of the full-scale invasion of russia into Ukraine on February 24, 2022).
The source base of the work was published and unpublished oral history sources, periodicals, mass media, complete monographs, and field research.
Our modern history is still being written, but we can already see how rapidly the perception of women in war is developing. Ukrainian women warriors confidently show themselves on a level with men, not inferior to them in any way, this applies to those specialties where you need to show not physical strength, but intellectual skills, patience and endurance. Women in the war proved themselves best as snipers, scouts, and communications workers. This is not taking into account other equally important roles, such as medics, volunteers, and guardians.
Keywords: Russian-Ukrainian war, roles of women in the war, medics, soldiers, volunteers, Armed Forces of Ukraine.
- Kis, O. (2015). Women’s Faces of War: Key Themes and Approaches in Western Feminist Historiography. Central and Eastern European Women in World War II: Gendered Experiences in Times of Extreme Violence (Pp. 15—39). Kyiv: ART BOOK [in Ukrainian].
- Bezhuk, O., & Baidak, M. (2017). Ukrainian women during the First World War: spectrum of social roles. Ukrainian women in the crucible of modernization (Pp. 78—105). Kharkiv: Family Leisure Club [in Ukrainian].
- Rozhdestvenska, O., Semenova, V., & Nikitina-den Basten, O. (2015). Women‘s destinies and women‘s memory of the war. Central and Eastern European Women in World War II: Gendered Experiences in Times of Extreme Violence (Pp. 40—58). Kyiv: ART BOOK [in Ukrainian].
- Kobchenko, K. (2015). Women as a military resource of totalitarian power: pre-war Soviet gender strategies. Central and Eastern European Women in World War II: Gendered Experiences in Times of Extreme Violence (Pp. 61—78). Kyiv: ART BOOK [in Ukrainian].
- Aleksievich, S. (2016). War does not have a female face. Kharkiv: Vivat [in Ukrainian].
- Podobna, E. (2018). Girls cut their braids. Kyiv: Luta Prasva [in Ukrainian].
- Invisible battalion: 5 stories of military women. VIDEO. Retrieved from: https://life.pravda.com.ua/cul tu re/2017/09/18/226487/; Invisible Battalion (official page on Facebook). Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/InvisibleBattalion/?ref=page_internal.
- «If it weren’t for the war». Photo project about Ukrainian female soldiers. Retrieved from: https://life.pravda.com.ua/society/2016/03/9/209129/.
- Girl with a camera: how Yuliya Kochetova-Nabozhniak builds bridges between war and peace. Retrieved from: https://life.pravda.com.ua/culture/2017/07/26/225508/.
- «Stay» (official website of the author of the video project). Retrieved from: Access mode: http://www.anastasiataylorlind.com/stay/.
- «ArmyInform» website. Retrieved from: https://armyinform.com.ua/2021/12/04/skilky-zhinok-vijskovosluzhbovcziv-sluzhat-u-zbrojnyh-sylah-ukrayiny-novi-dani-kadrovogo-czentru/.
- Zelenska named the number of women in the Armed Forces. Retrieved from: https://hromadske.radio/news/ 2022/06/11/zelens-ka-nazvala-kil-kist-zhinok-u-zsu.
- Post on the Facebook page of the Ukrainian Association of Representatives of Law Enforcement Bodies — UAPPO dated July 6, 2022. Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/UAWLE/.
- «You’re not a woman here, because war has no gender»: Margarita Rivchachenko about serving in the Teroboron and helping the army. Retrieved from: https://life.pravda.com.ua/society/2022/03/8/247712/.
- Law of Ukraine «On Amendments to Certain Laws of Ukraine Regarding Ensuring Equal Rights and Opportunities for Women and Men During Military Service in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Other Military Formations». Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2523-19#Text.
- Order of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine «On the approval of the List of specialties and/or professions related to the relevant military accounting specialties, after receiving which women are accepted for military registration of conscripts and the List of specialties and/or professions related to the relevant military accounting specialties». Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/z1566-21#Text.
- The Ministry of Defense sent for approval a new version of the order on the military registration of women. Retrieved from: https://www.mil.gov.ua/news/2022/01/21/ministerstvo-oboroni-napravilo-na-pogodzhennya-novu-redakcziyu-nakazu-pro-vijskovij-oblik-zhinok/.
- Law of Ukraine «On Military Duty and Military Service». Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2232-12#Text.
- Official female military uniform. How the Armed Forces take another step towards equality in the army. Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/ukrainian/features-62148100?at_medium=custom7&at_custom4=CD0FECEC-0659-11ED-A08A-8BD496E8478F&at_custom3= BBC+News+Ukraine&at_campaign=%2064&at_custom2=facebook_page&at_custom1=%5Bpost+type%5D&fbclid=IwAR0dzfMvmJZ-vwd2v_mwautjrU5SwG-pAkkX4ZbDo_y9l5-ZQ8LZYwvFaiM&fs=e&s=cl.
- Yarina Chornoguz’s Facebook post from July 3, 2022. Retrieved from: https://www.facebook.com/yaryna.chornohuz/posts/pfbid02oqguYDRJgGDc9ngmEWRazSZsuLfBCynHSp6FDKrx2wGy1g8g4zqQ6KMC7T5uaA7Fl.
- Law of Ukraine «On Amending Article 73 of the Labor Code of Ukraine». Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1643-20#Text.
- Bakovetska, O.O. (2021). Ukrainian women in the wars of the 20th—21st centuries (Pp. 152—156). Kherson: Helvetica Publishing House [in Ukrainian].
- Kis, O. (2013). Between the personal and the political: gender features of the experience of women participants in the national liberation struggles in the western Ukrainian lands in the 1940s and 1950s. The ethnology notebooks, 4, 591—599 [in Ukrainian].
- Grabovska, I. (2017). Philosophical and outlook analysis of the problem «Woman and war» (on the example of modern Ukraine). Versus, 2 (10), 50—55[in Ukrainian].
- Decree of the President of Ukraine, 119/2020 «On the assignment of a military rank». Retrieved from: https://www.president.gov.ua/documents/1192020-33009.
- SBU Major General Yulia Laputina: «Russia creates and fuels movements for traditional values». Retrieved from: https://lb.ua/society/2020/04/08/454752_generalmayor_sbu_yuliya_laputina.html.
- Yulia Mykytenko, the first commander of the girls’ platoon in Ukraine: When you wear a uniform, the problem of gender disappears. Retrieved from: https://novynarnia.com/2019/09/30/iulia-mykytenko/.
- Yaryna Chornoguz: A woman has many advantages in war. Retrieved from: https://povaha.org.ua/yaryna-chornoguz-zhinka-maye-bagato-perevag-na-vijni/.
- Video appeal to Volodymyr Zelenskyi. Stop the withdrawal of Ukrainian troops. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0PT2qKkUu3Q.
- Meeting between Zelensky and Putin: what awaits Donbas if they do not come to an agreement. Retrieved from: https://web.archive.org/web/20191128191415/https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/donbass-realii/30289547.html.
- «The best warriors are always brave». Sniper Olena Bilozerska about her service in the Armed Forces and the prospects of the war. Retrieved from: https://life.pravda.com.ua/society/2022/04/17/248251/.
- Sniper Olena Bilozerska: I can’t surrender, otherwise I’ll have to shoot myself. Retrieved from: https://novynarnia.com/2022/04/28/obilozerska/.
- Kilar, A., Pikulytska, H., & Bulka, S. (2021). Warriors of Light: University and War. Lviv: Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
- Archive of IN NASU. F. 1. Op. 2. Unit coll. 829.
- «Women of steel». Relatives of the defenders of Mariupol and Azovstal have created a council that will coordinate the process of their return home. Retrieved from: https://espreso.tv/zhinki-zi-stali-rodini-polonenikh-z-mariupolya-stvorili-radu-ta-prosyat-povernuti-voiniv-dodomu.
- Russia withdrew from the Geneva Convention on the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts. Retrieved from: https://www.ukrmilitary.com/2019/11/rusokupant.html.
- Marceniuk, T., Berlinska, M., & Marceniuk, T. (2016). «Invisible Battalion»: participation of women in military operations in the ATO: (sociological study). Kyiv: NaUKMA [in Ukrainian].
- Decree of the President of Ukraine «On assigning a military rank». Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/323/2018#Text.
- The first woman general Lyudmila Shugalei about her service, Maidan and the evacuation of the wounded in Donbas. Retrieved from: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/persha-zhinka-general-shugalei/29553322.html.
- «Angels» shoot from a bow: «Tyra» is a participant of the Invictus Games 2020. Retrieved from: https://armyinform.com.ua/2019/11/29/angely-strilyayut-z-luka-tajra-uchasnyczya- invictus-games-2020/
- May 9 — memory of grandfather: how the granddaughter of a World War II veteran became a paramedic in the anti-terrorist operation. Retrieved from: https://life.pravda.com.ua/society/2018/05/9/230783/.
- «Russia does not want to exchange it». Ukrainian volunteer Yulia Paevska is in captivity and on the air of Russian NTV. Retrieved from: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/yuliya-payevska-polon-rosiya/31795955.html.
- Russian TV showed a video with the captured volunteer Yulia Paevska. VIDEO. Retrieved from: https://novynarnia.com/2022/03/22/rosijske-tb-pokazalo/.
- «It’s hell there. I want everyone to come home» — interview with Tyra after captivity. Retrieved from: https://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/tayra-interview-pislya-rosiyskoho-polonu/31938181.html.
- «Bird of steel» — what about the girl who sang in the dungeons of «Azovstal». Retrieved from: https://www.5.ua/suspilstvo/ptashka-zi-stali-shcho-vidomo-pro-divchynu-iaka-spivala-v-pidzemelliakh-azovstali-276666.html.
- «I already have an order from my daughter» — a conversation with the mother of «Ptashka» from «Azovstal». Retrieved from: https://bykvu.com/ua/bukvy/u-mene-ie-vzhe-zamovlennia-vid-donechky-rozmova-z-matir-iu-ptashky-z-azovstali/.
- «Bird of Steel» is the story of Kateryna, who defends «Azovstal». Retrieved from: https://bykvu.com/ua/bukvy/ptashka-zi-stali-istoriia-kateryny-iaka-zakhyshchaie-azovstal/.
- Ukrainian fighters on «Azovstal» carried out the order — statement of «Azov». Retrieved from: https://suspilne.media/240163-ukrainski-bijci-na-azovstali-vikonali-nakaz-zaava-azovu/.
- Zelenskyi told how many fighters from «Azovstal» were in Russian captivity and who is engaged in their liberation. Retrieved from: https://suspilne.media/247297-zelenskij-rozpoviv-skilki-bijciv-z-azovskali-opinilis-u-rosijskomu-poloni-ta-hto-zajmaetsa-ih-vizvolennam/.
- The Female Face of War: Women Volunteers Fighting in the Home Front. Retrieved from: https://povaha.org.ua/zhinoche-oblychchya-vijny-zhinky-volonterky-yaki-voyuyut-u-tylu/.
- Women volunteers of KPI: help and warm. Retrieved from: https://kpi.ua/1507-7.
- The «Living Book» volunteer initiative continues in Lviv. Retrieved from: https://lv.ridna.ua/2018/02/18/u-lvovi-tryvaje-volonterska-initsiatyva-zhyva-knyha/.
- Interview with Svitlana Bulka about the volunteer movement in Ukraine, recorded by Mykhailo Zapototsky on July 5, 2017. Retrieved from: https://archive.lnu.edu.ua/intervyu-z-svitlanoyu-bulkoyu-pro-volonterskyj-ruh-v-ukrajini/.
- With or without weapons. Ukrainian women defend their country. Retrieved from: https://ukrainer.net/zhinky/.
- Jamala collected 67 million euros for the needs of the Armed Forces. Retrieved from: https://suspilne.media/214784-dzamala-zibrala-67-miljoniv-evro.
- How many Ukrainians are currently defending the country. The Minister of Defense disclosed the number of military formations. Retrieved from: https://vikna.tv/video/ukrayina/miljon-ukrayincziv-staly-na-oboronu-krayiny-reznikov-pro-chyselnist-vijskovyh-formuvan-ukrayiny/.