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« 2023. # 1 (169)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2023. № 1 (169), 147—162

UDK 738.8(477.83-25)”18/19″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2023.01.147

POTTERS FROM LEMKIVSHCHYNA AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION INTO THE DEVELOPMENT OF UKRAINIAN FOLK EARTHENWARE

IVASHKIV Halyna

  • ORCID ID: htps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2359-6735
  • Doctor of Art Criticism, Senior researcher,
  • Head of the sector «Centre for Studies into Ukrainian Pottery»;
  • The Ethnology Institute at the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • Folk Art Department,
  • 15, Svoboda Ave., 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: halia_503@ukr.net

Abstract. The question of ceramic centres, as well as artistic peculiarities of the earthenware from Lemkivshchyna is topical, since it has never been an object of a detailed research. Therefore, the aim of this articleis to analyze the development of pottery production in Lemkivshchyna, and we will limit ourselves to the territory of present-day Poland. The subject of the research is the earthenware by Lemko potters, while the object is the potters’ activity and artistic specificity of their works. Methodologically, the paper is based on principles of systematicity, historism and comparativity applying cultural-historical, and comparative-typological methods. The given article is based on such materials as the earthenware from museum funds, archive records and internet resources.

There is not much data on Lemko pottery centres in scientific and popular science literature. Certain aspects have been highlighted in the works by Yu. Tarnovych, K. Mateiko, I. Dobrianska, I. Verkhratskyi, Z. Hanudel, T. Hontar, M. Muszynka, О. Koshovyi, R. Motyl, and H. Ivashkiv. Some facts on Lemko pottery can be found in «The Chronicles» of Taras Shevchenko Scholarly Society, newspapers and journals «The Business», «The Life and Knowledge», «The Ukrainian news», «Our Word», and «Polska Sztuka Ludowa». In the course of research we have established that there were more than ten ceramic centres on the territory of Lemkivshchyna, namely Kołaczyce, Mezhybrody, Milik, Mrzygłуd, Muszyna, Nowy Sącz, Odrzechowa, Podegrady, Poraż, Stary Sącz and Sanok.

The earliest record on pottery production on the lands of Lemkivshchyna dates back to the 16th c., whereas it reached its peak there and on the whole territory of Ukraine in the late 19th early 20th cc.

Particular attention should be paid to the question of authorship of Lemko earthenware, as the potters rarely signed their works. The article characterizes works by Andriy Kalish from Stary Sącz, who made pots, jugs, cups, bowls, lids and flowerpots. In decor of his earthenware the potter used various decoration techniques, such as scratching, «horning», partial or full glazing, rarely some relief images. Pottery in Lemkivshchyna was developing within general tendencies in Ukraine, and this can be seen in traditional shapes, technology, decoration techniques, etc.

Keywords: Lemkivshchyna, earthenware, potters, typology, shape, décor.

Received 27.12.2022

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