« 2024. # 1 (175)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2024. № 1 (175), 119—130

UDK 340.123(100)”17/19″:343.37




  • Graduate student of the Faculty of History,
  • Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,
  • 1, University Street, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail:

Abstract. This article is devoted to the analysis of criminological schools of the XVIII—XX c. and their approaches to understanding the reasons behind crimes in general and economic crimes in particular. Economic crime is one of the oldest forms of crime, punished by very first known codes of law, but only closer to the XVIII c. first steps of viewing crime through scientific lens were made.

The main idea of each schools is to find and indicate the main phenomena or conditions that turn a law-abiding citizen into a criminal. During this period, we can distinguish five criminological schools: Classical, Geographical, Socialist, Typological and Social-psychological. Comparative-typological and critical methods of analysis were used in the study of their ideas.

These schools tried to determine the main reasons for the commission of crimes, while being in a constant debate. Each subsequent school of criminology offered its own statement, which was aimed at refuting previous developments in this field.

This article proposes to analyze the achievements of these schools and demonstrate that for almost two centuries the main question was the relationship between innate human tendencies and the influence of the external environment. The discussion acquired a pendulum character — each new school was in greater or lesser opposition to the previous one and took the opposite position. The final attempt to reconcile the two approaches was made after the Second World War and the final condemnation of eugenics.

Keywords: Criminological schools, Lombroso, Beccaria, Marx, Sutherland.

Received 26.01.2024


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