The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, 2 (146), 354—367
FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT IN PLANNING STRUCTURE OF POLISSYA DWELLING (18th — MID 20th CENTURY)
ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1900-8948
Doctor of Sciences in History, Senior Researcher
of the Institute of Ethnology
of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
in the Department of Historical Ethnology,
Svobody Avenue 15, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine
Abstract. Horizontal planning is one of the main features of the historic dwelling typology. The development of the planning structure of housing in various regions of Ukraine was complex and diverse, as a result of a number of factors. Therefore, the elucidation of the local specificity of the planning structure of the settlements of certain ethnographic regions is very relevant today. The goal of author is to find out the peculiarities in formation of the planning structure of dwellings in Pokuttya and to reveal their common Ukrainian features and local specifics. The object of research is the traditional habitation of Pokutians, and the subject is its planning structure. Methodological basis of the research is the principle of historicism in combination with the elements of structural and functional analysis and the use of basic methods of ethnological science. Planning of the inhabitants of Pokutian people has never been the subject of special research. In the few publications concerning the housing and construction culture in this area, this aspect is covered by the authors rather quickly, without proper analysis, therefore the author’s field materials are the basis of the work.
Pokuttya housing, as well as the Ukrainian general, was formed on the basis of one-chamber heating. In 18th — in the first half of the 19th century there were two- (living room + passage) and three-chambered buildings (living room + passage + storeroom). There were also no rarities in the dwelling, in which the living space was located between the houses and storeroom (зфііфпу + living room + storeroom) at the Pokuttya-Boykivsk borderland at this time. Dwelling with two livingrooms, located on either side of the passage, are becoming increasingly popular in the middle of the 19th century. Such structures are becoming more widespread at the end of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Moreover, in some areas, this type of planning becomes predominant. Storeroom in such cases are located at the back wall of the passage or at the one of the living quarters (in some cases, they are built separately). A small storeroom located in the passage became so commonplace that such premises sometimes even began to be allocated even in homes, which included a complete storeroom at the beginning of the 20th century. Comparison of the individual components of the planning structure (the specifics of the location of the premises, windows and doorways, the presence of annexes, etc.) makes it possible to state that the planning features of the settlements were formed under the influence of neighboring ethnographic regions: on the one hand, Podillya and Opilia, on the other — Hutsulshchyna (and partly Boykivshchyna). Actually due to these influences, their complex interweaving and rethinking, adaptation to local conditions, and created a specific planning option, which can be defined as Pokutskuy.
Keywords: Pokuttya, dwelling, planning, living room, passage, storehouse, annex.
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