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The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 3 (147), 732—748

UDK 39(=161.2)[643:747](477.83/.87)

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.03.732

BUILT-IN AND SEMI-BUILT EQUIPMENT IN THE INTERIOR DESIGN OF FOLK DWELLING OF UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS IN LATE ХІХ — EARLY ХХ CENTURY

SYVAK Vasyl

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6444-0705

Ph.D. of Sciences in History, Researcher of the Institute

of Ethnology of the National Academy of Sciences

of Ukraine, in the Department of Historical Ethnology,

15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine.

Contacts: e-mail: suvakvasul@gmail.com

Abstract. An interior is integral part of the national housing of the Ukrainian Carpathians, the main contents of which are: heating system, arrangement (furniture), lighting, equipment, decorative objects and applied arts. In the study of history of the development of traditional furniture of the traditional housing of the Ukrainian Carpathians, the question is raised about the ethnic peculiarity of the phenomenon and the external influences on it. The article deals with varieties of equipment for dwellings and auxiliary premises (pantries (komora) and porch (siny) that were mounted in the zone of use of the upper space. I conditionally divide them into two kinds. To the first, stationary, originally belonged to two parallel located poles, which the Ukrainian highlanders meant «hriady». To the second, semi-stationary, belonged to the janitors, which were also sometimes termed as «hriady». Both adaptations belonged to the most ancient parts of the house. They have been living for centuries, so finding out the origin and function of equipment in various ethnographic districts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is very relevant.

The proposed exploration aims to trace the use of built-in and semi-built equipment in the smoky («kurnyi») and semi-smoky («napivkurnui») housing of the Ukrainian highlanders, to find out their common and local features. The object of the research is the traditional habitation of Boikos, Hutsuls and Lemkos, and the subject is the built-in and semi-built equipment in the zone of use of the upper space. The methodological basis of the study was the general scientific principles of historicism, systemicity, scientific objectivity, which allowed to carry out the necessary scientific analysis of the subject under the study as a whole, as well as its individual aspects. They made it possible to systematize collected material, to trace the evolutionary processes that took place in the equipment of the interior of the Ukrainian Carpathians in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century. The indicated problem was not a separate object of the research in the past. The source base was formed with the help of stationary and route ethnographic expeditions, during which the fixation of field materials was made by means of taking photographs, measuring, painting objects, interviewing the respondents, therefore the author’s field materials are the basis of the work.

Built-in and semi-built equipment of the Ukrainian-mountaineers functioned at the same time as the construction of a smoky house. I believe that terminology, as well as adaptations, were introduced to the Carpathians even during their settlement, from the fifteenth century, or, more precisely, when they built a full-fledged dense housing.

Keywords: Ukrainian Carpathians, equipment, «hriadka», «zherdka», smoky and semi-smoky hose («kurna ta napivkurna khata»), heating «by-clean» («po-chystomu»), «khata», «siny», «komora».

Received 7.05.2019

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