Archive

« 2019. № 4 (148)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 4 (148), 951—1000

УДК 398.332

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.04.951

POPULAR CALENDAR OF BEREZNIVSHCHYNA IN RITUALS, CUSTOMS AND FOLKLORE

HALAICHUK Volodymyr

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7780-5876

Candidate of Philology, docent

The Ivan Franko National University of Lviv

Department of Ethnology

1, Universytets’ka str., 79000, L’viv, Ukraine

Contacts: е-mail: halay_czuk@ukr.net

Abstract. The elucidation of the local specificity of certain ethnographic regions nowadays is one of the most important and relevant trends in the study of the traditional culture of Ukrainians.The author sets the goal in the research, to comprehensively describe the national calendar of Bereznivshchyna, which is part of the Western Polissya. The object of the research is the calendar-marked rites, customs, beliefs and folklore of the inhabitants of Bereznivshchyna, and the subject is their general-Ukrainian features, regional and local peculiarities. The methodological basis of the research is the use of basic methods of ethnological science, primarily the method of field ethnography, as well as the development of ethnographers in the field of formation of folk calendars in local areas. The traditional calendar of Bereznivshchyna has not been the subject of special studies yet. This aspect is elucidated in the scientific literature quite sparingly, so the basis of the work is the author’s field materials.

This article describes in detail the register of holidays and dedications, which is important folk component of Bereznivshchyna.

Ritual games with «Kalyta» on Andri’s day, the custom «go to the Gypsies» on Varvara,

«calling the Frost» usually on the Rich kutya attracts attention to the holidays of the folk winter calendar.

The spring period is detemined by the custom of «Kolodka», timed to the Masnycy, with local representations that Marco Klyuchnik in the spring «disposes of the land». Attracted attention is also to the archaic customs of dancing on the cemetery on the Provod, walking «rocking in the rye» on Yuri, as well as a ritualized grazing of the cattle on the grass timed to Yuri.

Among the holidays of the summer complex, the Rusal Week is first of all distinguished. As is typical of the Polissian tradition, a number of rituals, customs and superstitions this week are associated with the notions of mermaids. The peculiarities of local Kupala customs and rituals, accompanied by the production of plant substitute witches, are noted. The local tradition is «to strangle the cuckoo». The variety of rituals with the so-called «beard» attracts attention among harvivarian traditions .

The local peculiarity of autumn holidays is characterized by ideas related to the days of «Miracle» and Exaltation. An important place among the customs and ordinances of the autumn occupy those that are aimed at honoring the ancestors.

It should also be noted that, according to the author’s observation, the southern margins of Bereznivshchyna in some aspects tend to gravitate towards the Volyn ethnographic tradition.

Keywords: Polissya, Bereznivshchyna, calendar customs and ceremonies, Christmas, Easter, Yuri’s day, mermaids week, Kupala.

Received 10.05.2019

REFERENCES

Kovalchuk, V. (Ed.), & Hapon, L. (2001). Kupala and Petrovich songs. In Ethnocultural heritage of Rivne Polissya: materials of complex scientific expeditions of the Rivne Folklore and Ethnographic Society (Issue I, pp. 76—91). Rivne: Volyn’s Amulets [in Ukrainian].
Kovalchuk, V., Parkhomenko, T., Ukrainets, A. (3 eds.), & Hapon. L. (2002). Vesnyanki. In Ethnocultural heritage of Rivne Polissya (Issue II, pp. 58—64). Rivne: Perspective [in Ukrainian].
Kovalchuk, V. (2003). Songs from Vitkovychi village of Bereznivsky district. In Ethnocultural heritage of Rivne Polissya (Issue IV, pp. 234—241). Rivne: Perspective [in Ukrainian].
Kovalchuk, V. (Ed.), Hapon, L. (2005). Christmas carols «koliady» and «shchedrivky». Bilka of Bereznivskyi rayon (according to the expedition 1999). In Ethnocultural heritage of Polissya (Issue VІ, pp. 80—92). Rivne: Perspective [in Ukrainian].
Kovalchuk, N.A. (2008). Calendary customs and ordinances of Rivne Polissya: local specificity and transformations (XX — the beginning of the XXI century.): author’s abstract. Dis … Cand. is Sciences: 07.00.05; National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Art History, Folklore Studies and Ethnology. M.T. Rylsky. Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
Parkhomenko, T.P. (2008). Calendar customs and ordinances of the Rivne region: materials of the field research. Rivne: publisher Oleg Zen [in Ukrainian].
Fedas, T.O. (2011). Folklore and ethnographic complex of Mikhail village of Bereznivsky district of Rivne region (scientific work). berezne.libr.rv.ua/kr/91.pdf [in Ukrainian].
Rybak, Y. (2016). Folk songs of Bereznivshchyna: on the materials of the expedition of 2013. Rivne: M. Dyatlik [in Ukrainian].
Kovalchuk, V. (Ed.), & Hapon, L., Boyarska, N. Christmas carols and family gatherings in the village of Bilka, Bereznivsky district. In Chronicle of Bereznivshchyna: scientific notes of Bereznivsky Local Historical Museum (Issue 1, pp. 165—177). Rivne: O. Zen [in Ukrainian].
Parkhomenko, T. (Ed.), & Hapon, L., Boyarska, N. (2011). Calendar-ritual songs of Bereznivshchyna. In Chronicle of Bereznivshchyna: scientific notes of Bereznivsky Local Historical Museum (Issue 1, pp. 178—199). Rivne: O. Zen [in Ukrainian].
Khimina, V. (2015). Calendar-ritual songs of the village of Bilka, Bereznivsky district. Valentine’s Khimina records. Transcriptions of Volodymyr Kozak. In Chronicle of Bereznivshchyna: scientific notes of Bereznivsky Local History Museum (Issue 2, pp. 173—190). Rivne: O. Zen [in Ukrainian].
Guntik, T. (2017). Calendar and ritual songs of the Northern Bereznivshchyna in the system of Polissya folklore. In Chronicle of Bereznivshchyna: scientific notes of Bereznivsky Regional Museum of Local Lore (Issue 3, pp. 133—149). Rivne: O. Zen [in Ukrainian].
Starynska, T. (2011). Treasures of Prince-village. In Chronicle of Bereznivshchyna: scientific notes of Bereznivsky Local History Museum (Issue 1, pp. 148—164). Rivne: O. Zen [in Ukrainian].
Vasyanovich, O. (2015). Water in the Meteorological Beliefs of the Polishchuk in Bereznivshchyna. In Chronicle of Bereznivshchyna: scientific notes of Bereznivsky Local Historical Museum (Issue 2, pp. 139—143). Rivne: O. Zen [in Ukrainian].

Our authors
On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »