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« 2019. № 6 (150)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, № 6 (150), 1510—1516

UDK271.2 – 523.47: 7.021.7](477.8)”185″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.06.1510

TYPOLOGY OF ICONOSTASIS OF THE EAST OPILLIA СHURCHES IN THE MIDDLE OF THE 19TH CENTURY

BAKOVYCH Olena

ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2524-0863

Ph.D. lecturer, department of sacred art,

Lviv National Academy of Arts

38, Kubiiovycha Street, 79011, Lviv, Ukraine

e-mail: olena.bakovych@lnam.edu.ua

Abstract. Introduction. In the course of its development, the Ukrainian iconostasis undergoes various stages of development. Not all regions had these processes taking place at the same time and thus may have some differences caused by geographical, historical, social and cultural factors. One of such territories is East Opillia. The iconostasis of the churches of this region had peculiarities in the constructive and plastic decorative solution. The peculiarities of such iconostases are a decrease in the number of decorative carvings compared to the previous period and an increase in attention to the composition of design solutions. The purpose of the article is to systematize and propose a typological classification of iconostases.

The methodological basis of the article is a formal analysis combined with empirical research methods. As a result, according to structural features of the iconostasis of the churches of the East Opillia of the 19th century are divided into three types: low — single-tier, multi-tier divided into two parts above the upper tier, multi-tier as a solid wall, but with a gap between the upper tier and the Feasts tier. The first type includes iconostasis consisting only of an upper tier, sometimes with a basement. The second type includes iconostases, which are composed of two parts and open an overview of the Sanctuary. In such constructions, the upper tier can be connected at the edges with the Apostolic one, or the upper part of the iconostasis (Feasts, Apostolic, Prophetic tier) may be a separate structure, which is attached to the eastern wall of the vestibule. The gap of this type of arch-shaped iconostasis can be decorated with bows or drapes with drones and tassels. Due to the location of the upper tiers in the shape of an arch, the straightness of an upper part of the composition is lost. The third type most preserves the traditions of Ukrainian iconostasis construction of previous periods.

Conclusion. Despite the possibility of a typology of iconostases according to certain features, each of them is a unique and inimitable monument.

Keywords: Deacon’s Doors, iconostasis, decorative carving, construction, composition, Holy Door, tier.

Received 28.11.2019

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