The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. № 5 (155), 1037—1050
UDK 638. 14 : 39] (477. 83 + 477. 86 /. 87)
ТRADITIONAL BEEKEEPING OF UKRAINIANS OF HUTSUL REGION: THE SPECIFICS OF PRODUCTION CULTURE
- Doctor of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher
- the Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy
- of Sciences of Ukraine,
- the Department of Historical Ethnology,
- Svobody Avenue 15, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine
- Contacts: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. The article is the first attempt to outline the main features of the economic and production complex of traditional Hutsul beekeeping as a significant segment of Ukrainian ethnic culture on the basis of materials of own field searches and literature and museum sources, which determines its relevance. The object of our research is traditional beekeeping of Hutsuls, and the subjects are processes, which creates technology culture of apiculture of Ukrainians in Hutsul region and artifacts as the result of them (apiary arrangement, bee keeping, reseiving of honey and their application, types of beehives and features of their design, types of beekeeper equipment). The study used comparative, typological, structural-functional methods and method of field researchers.
The important role of types and designs of traditional frame hives (logs, hollows, straw baskets) and modified rational dwellings for bees (Slavs, Ukrainian beds, Dadans) is emphasized. The focus is on the folk experience of insect breeding — traditional knowledge of the apiary, the annual production beekeeping calendar (swarming, wintering outdoors and indoors, methods of prevention and treatment of diseases). The significant value in the process of optimization of care of bees is played by apiary accessories — protective face nets, chimneys, pumps, robes, honeycombs. The process of obtaining bee products is considered, in particular technological methods of honey harvesting, depending on the type of beehives, and methods of production operations waxing. Obtaining honey and the feasibility of its economic use was dictated by the appropriate technological methods of honey collection in collapsible and non-collapsible hives, time and conditions of storage of sweet product.
Since there have been no research works conducted on that subject, the article is based on the field materials gathered by the author. After analyze the significant number of ethnographical field and sporadic bibliographical sources the historical roots and prevalence are proved and the regional specifics of beekeeping as a traditional economic occupation of Hutsuls are clarified.
Keywords: beekeeping, industrial culture, beehive, traditional, Hutsul.
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