The Ethnology Notebooks. 2022. № 2 (164), 480—490
CREATIVE PORTRAIT of HRYHORII MYKYTOVYCH DZIUMA, CLAY TOY CRAFTSMAN, AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE HISTORY OF THE VYSHNIVETS CENTER IN THE TERNOPIL REGION
- ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5931-3816
- Doctor of Sciences in History, Сandidate of Аrts (Ph. D), Head of Department,
- The Institute of Ethnology of the National Academy
- of Sciences of Ukraine,
- Department of Folk Art
- 15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
- Contacts: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. Introduction. Clay toy is a rare phenomenon of Ukrainian decorative and applied art. The interest in the clay toy was not lost. It exists to this day (at the beginning of the XXI century) as a work of art, a cultural remembrance, as well as an object of play, a means of education.
Article purpose — to clarify the creative path of the clay toy craftsman Hryhorii (Georgy) Mykytovych Dziuma against the background of the history of the Vyshnivets pottery center (Kremenets district, Ternopil region).
The object of research is the historical and cultural aspects of the functioning of the Vyshnivets pottery center, and the subject is the artistic practice and works of Hryhorii Dziuma, the potter.
The article source base is records and photographs made by the author in 1993 during field research of the Vyshnivets pottery center, items of the Vyshnivets toy in Ukrainian museums and in the author’s private collection, including the works of potter Hryhorii Dziuma, and also historical and local lore literature, archival materials.
The formation of the factual basis of the study was carried out by methods of observation and photo fixation. The biographical method was used to cover events in the life and work of Hryhorii Dziuma. The method of art analysis was used to assess the creative heritage of the craftsman.
Conclusion. The research proves that thanks to the work of the extraordinary personality of the craftsman Hryhorii Dziuma, the Vyshnivets toy remained in its authentic state until the end of the XX century. The toys’ traditional basis was created by the craftsman is the imagery achieved using plasticity and colour. Contrary to the tendency to change the function of the traditional toy in the culture of Ukrainians in the direction of increasing decorativeness, which lasted throughout the XX century, Vyshnivets clay figurines clearly show their playful and educational value.
The works of Vyshnivets toys of the second half of the XX century, in particular by Hryhorii Dziuma, are motivated basis for continuing and nurturing the Vyshnivets toy tradition as a manifestation of Ukrainian identity in the socio-cultural space of the XXI century.
Keywords: culture,decorative and applied art, clay toy, Vyshnivets pottery center, tradition, craftsman, artistic practice, image, plastic, colour.
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