« 2023. # 4 (172)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2023. № 4 (172), 1061—1084

UDK [738:39](=161.2):930.2:069(477:100) 

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2023.04.1061



  • ORCID ID: htps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2359-6735
  • Doctor of Sciences in Art Criticism, Senior Scholar,
  • Head of the Department «The Centre for Research of Ukrainian Pottery»,
  • at the Ethnology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
  • at the Museum of Ethnography, Arts and Crafts, Folk Art Department,
  • 1, Svoboda Ave., 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: e-mail: halynaivashkiv@ukr.net

Abstract. Ukrainian folk figure earthenware as an original type decorative and applied arts functions according to all the general laws by which folk art develops. The analogues of such earthenware can be traced in works made of wood, metal, stone, gypsum, dough and cheese. There are figure-shaped bowls of open and closed type, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic interior items, namely candlesticks, earthenware money boxes, flower pots, ash trays, small plastic items, pipes, music instruments (okaryna) etc. We can see certain features of figure shapes in architectural earthenware, particularly in formative and decorative bricks, roof tiles, some exterior and interior elements of sacral buildings (reliefs, rosettes, roofs, and floor tiles), chimneys etc. The earthenware plays an important role in church space and liturgy as well as calendar (Christmas, Easter etc.) and family (birth, wedding, and burial) rituals and customs of the Ukrainian people.

The aim of the article is to provide a versatile analysis of historiography and sources that can become a basis for new research into specificity of plastic and relief dйcor as well as figure earthenware. Therefore, we a have a task to be the first to research less known art critical literature, often unknown archive materials, the author’s own field materials collected during expeditions and trips, data from museum and private collections of earthenware etc. This all gives us the opportunity to introduce a large number of earthenware into Ukrainian art criticism. In particular, we mean items from more than a hundred museums of Ukraine (1993—2019), Poland (National Ethnographic Museum in Warsaw (2005), Ethnographic and National Museums in Krakow (1998, 2002), Castle Museum in Јaсcut (2009), Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography in Јodz (2013), Museum of the Lublin Region Countryside in Lublin, 1995, 2005, 2011, 2017 etc), Slovakia (Museum of Folk Architecture and Life in Svidnik, 2014), the russian federation (russian Ethnographic Museum, 2005), China (Museum «Ukraine» in Jinhua, 2016), the USA (Ukrainian Museum in New York, Ukrainian National Museum in Chicago, 2019), over 15 private collections, materials from 9 expeditions and numerous business trips.

The object of research is Ukrainian and foreign scholars’ research into the development of figure earthenware; and the subject of research is defining dominant tendencies in interpreting Ukrainian folk figure earthenware. The methodological basis of the research is the metod of art analysis.

Keywords: figure earthenware, plasticity of dйcor and sha­pe, research, sources, museums, collections.

Received 5.07.2023


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Our authors
Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
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Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
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On bessarabian and moldavian ukrainians in the studies of historical ethnography
The article has thrown some light upon a sum of scientific findings got during XIX to XXI cc. in historio-ethnographic studies of Bessarabia and Moldavian Ukrainians. In the pre­sent paper has been given author’s answer to the problem of lacking progress as for the numerous themes concerning Ukrainians. State and achievements of the research-works in Ukrainians’ material and spiritual culture by the scientists of Moldavia and Ukraine through the years of independence has been exposed.
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Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
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