« 2020. № 3 (153)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. № 3 (153), 532—557

UDK 398.8:94 (=161.2)(355.48)”19″

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2020.03.532



ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0512-6388

Candidate of Philological Sciences (Ph. D. in philology),

Senior Researcher at the Ethnology Institute

of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,

15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,

Contacts: е-mail: kuzmenko.oksana@gmail.com

Abstract. The article presents a conceptual analysis of folklore pertaining to the activity of the Ukrainian People’s Republic (UNR) and the Western-Ukrainian People’s Republic (ZUNR). The purpose of this study is to identify the peculiarities of the «folklore» version of history and scholarly & academic discourse of the 1917—1920’s. The main task was to show the depth of the conflict of state-building ideas along the axis «people (peasants) — politicians», the multivectoral vision of the political project «Ukraine» in Galicia, Bukovina and Dnieper Ukraine regions. Due to the fact, that the sources are utterly scattered, there are no authentic texts of historic folklore depicting the events of the Ukrainian revolution and the civil war.

The author investigates the peculiarities of works including the satirical couplets and chastivkas, lyrical and epic songs, oral stories, narrative memorates. A complex analysis of regional traditions (Lviv, Kyiv, Zaporizhzhia, Vinnytsia regions), which is the object of this analysis, showed that despite the locally specific thematic groups, there is a strong general folklore conceptual basis revealing itself in the depiction of the enemy-conqueror, the motives of combatant’s fatal death of a soldier, cruelty of captivity. The folklore concepts, which make the subject of this research, bear the semantics of significant moral and philosophical categories of existence pivoting around the oppositions: sin/punishment, human/inhuman, good/evil, truth/falsehood. The author investigates «Lviv» tales and the song paradigm And on Sunday morning before the sun goes up (A v nediliu rano shche sontse ne skhodyt’) which indicate that folk works disclose a set of problems causing the defeat in 1918—1919 Ukrainian-Polish war. They are coded with the dramatic motives of fatal death due to the epidemics of typhus, images of starvation and misery amongst the army troops, motivemes captivity and betrayal. It is proven that the works are traditional and folklore-based which is seen in the actualization of resources of folklore language, epic images and stylistics.

The author has underlined historical prototypes and semantic markers of wartime activists (Anton Denikin, Nestor Makhno, Myron Tarnavsky). Among them most of attention is paid to analysis of the ambivalent UNR Chief Symon Petlura (leader / traitor) and peculiarities of the folklorization of the historic Warsaw Pact event of April 21, 1920.

It is summarized that the folklore text articulates the relevant hazards of the political crisis. The latter bases itself in the political illiteracy of the population, feeds on the passiveness, chaos in actions from the side of the bulk of Ukrainian peasants, and these paved way for a complicated scheme of civil war and altogether caused the loss of chances to build a united national state.

Keywords: historical folklore, regional folk, tradition, genre, motif, image, war, Ukrainian People’s Republic, Western-Ukrainian People’s Republic, S. Petlura, N. Makhno, A. Denikin.

Received 26.05.2020


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