« 2020. № 3 (153)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. № 3 (153), 563—572

UDK [398.21:”19/20″](092)



LUNIO Eugene


Candidate of Philology,

Institute of Ethnology

National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,

Research Fellow, Department of Folklore,

15, Svobody ave., 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,

Contacts: e-mail:

Abstract. Formulation of the problem. National-epic images of heroic persons who in the past have sacrificed themselves to fight against external enemies — oppressors of Ukraine, have important potential for the development national identity of its modern citizens, both the masses and the elite. One of the most famous Ukrainian national heroes of the last century — the Chief Commander of UPA Roman Shukhevych — «Taras Chuprynaka» is a character of many folklore works that are still prevalent active in the present. Previously, only G. Demian was engaged in recording and analyzing narrative folklore about R. Shukhevych, and the author, in a number of articles.

The purpose of the article is based on the analysis of the original folk legend «Shukhevych kills enemies and heroically dies» — to trace his genesis and development dynamics, highlight the subjective component in the work — the author’s artistic fiction, and the component is objective as a direct reflection of historical reality, to illuminate their organic unity as an artistic phenomenon. To point out the special ideological, political and aesthetic role of R. Shukhevych as a historical figure and as an artistic image in the formation of the Ukrainian mass consciousness. The methodological basis is a method of hermeneutics, which is defined as an art of understanding of textual discourse, and also defines as a commentary and interpretation of an artistic work by way of a rational-analytical and intuitive comprehension of its artistic meaning. The object of the study of this article is the original folk legend on the motive: «Shukhevych kills enemies and heroically dies». The subject of the study is the ideological and semantic aspect of the national-epic image of the UPA Commander-in-Chief. Novelty — the author first discovered and explored the latest modern phenomenon inherent in insurgent prose — the tendency of a certain confrontation between epic — oral and book — written forms of interpretation of reality.

Keywords: insurgent heroic epic, folk story, folk retelling, national hero, R. Shukhevych, OUN, UPA, Yavorivshchyna.

Received 19.05.2020


Demian, G. (1998). Ukrainian people about General Roman Shukhevych — «Taras Chuprynka». Liberation Way (Vol. 3 (600), pp. 259—271; Vol. 4 (601), pp. 391—400) [in Ukrainian].
Demian, G. (2003). General UPA Oleksa Gasin-«Lytsar». Lviv: The Enhnology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Demian, Gregory. (Ed.). (2006). Stepan Bandera and his family in folk songs, retellings and memoirs. Lviv: Afisha [in Ukrainian].
Lunio, E. (2007). The personality of Roman Shukhevich in the narrative folklore of Yavorivshchyna district. Ukrainian liberation movement (Vol. 10, pp. 203—224). Center for Studies in the Liberation Movement; Ivan Krypiakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies National Acadamy of Sciences of Ukraine. Lviv: Ms [in Ukrainian].
Lunio, E. (2011). UPA Chief Commander Roman Shukhevych in folklore prose of Yavorivshchyna district. The Ethnology Notebooks, 1, 43—65 [in Ukrainian].
Lunio, E., Ilnytsky, V., Futala, V., & Galiev, M. (Eds.). (2017). The folk story «Roman Shukhevych is in a secret insurgent’s hideout»: an ideo-artistic aspect. Eastern European Historical Bulletin (Special issue II, pp. 175—185). Drohobych: Posvit [in Ukrainian].
Lunio, E. (2017). Folk retelling «Roman Shukhevych and Osip Dyakov are staying in a peasant house»: an ideological and semantic aspect. Ukraine: Cultural Heritage, National Identity, Statehood (Vol. 30, pp. 229—235). National Acadamy of Sciences of Ukraine; Ivan Krypiakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Lviv [in Ukrainian].
Lunio, E. (2019). Folk retelling «Roman Shukhevych arrives in the forest to the insurgents», ideas-semantik and aesthetic aspect. The Ethnology Notebooks, 4, 906—914 [in Ukrainian].
Vinquist. Ch., & Taylor, V. (Eds.). (2003). Encyclopedia of Postmodernism. Kyiv: Fundamentals [in Ukrainian].
Borev, Y. (1988). Aesthetics (Ed. 4th, add). Moscow: Political Literature Publishing House [in Russian].
Sudoplatov, P. (1996). Intelligence and the Kremlin. (Notes from an unwanted witness): Declassified lives. Moscow: Geya LLP. Retrieved from: › books › razvedka-i-kreml-za… [in Russian].
Lunio, E. (2018). Folk retelling «Yuri Shukhevych recognizes to his deceased father»: ideological and artistic aspect. Mythology and folklore, 3—4, 5—13 [in Ukrainian].
Lunio, Eugene (Ed.). (2005). Yavorivshchyna region in the insurgent struggle. Stories of participants and eyewitnesses (Vol. 1): Nakoneczne First. Nakoneczne Second. Lviv: Chronicle [in Ukrainian].
Cook, V. (2007). UPA Commander-in-Chief general-hоrunji Roman Shukhevych. Chronicle of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Vol. 45, pp. 470—490). Toront; Lviv: UPA Chronicle Publishing House [in Ukrainian].


Our authors
Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »