« 2020. № 3 (153)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. № 3 (153), 573—584

UDK 398(=161.2):314.151.3-054.74(=161.2)(438)

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2020.03.573

DEPORTATION OF UKRAINIANS FROM POLAND IN 1944—1945: BEFORE AND AFTER (ON MATERIALS OF THE VILLAGE TULYHOLOVE OF HORODOK DISCRIT OF THE LVIV REGION)

KACHMAR Maria

ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7811-9576

Candidate of Sciences in Philology; Research Fellow

at the Institute of Ethnology

of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,

15 Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine.

Contacts: e-mail: mariakachmar@ukr.net

Abstract. The study of the phenomenon of the interaction of history and oral literature is especially relevant today and remains one of the leading areas of folklore discourse. The article is devoted to the analysis of folk tales of Ukrainians, deported in 1944—1945 from Zakerzonnya (4 districts of Poland). The object and source base of the research are the texts of folk tales about resettlement, recorded in 2012 from the residents of the villageTulyholove of Horodok district of Lviv region, natives of villages of Yaroslavl and Przemyњl districts of Poland. The purpose of the article is to outline thematic groups and plot motives on the basis of the analysis of folklore narratives about the deportation of Ukrainians from Zakerzonnya, which were introduced into scientific circulation for the first time; find out their semantics and genesis; explore the dominant images, that best represent the «small» homeland and the «new» home; trace the specifics of the reflection of objective historical events through the subjective perception of the participant or eyewitness. The methodological basis of the work is the principle of historicism of folklore. The works of Ukrainian folklorists in the field of interaction of history and folk art (S. Myshanych, V. Sokol, L. Ivannikova, O. Kuzmenko, L. Khalyuk, etc.) are used.

On the basis of a comprehensive study of prose samples the subject, structure, basic motives, central images, the source of which undoubtedly served certain historical events, reflected through the prism of individual experiences and feelings, collective memory and folklore consciousness are analysed. Three thematic blocks are distinguished: life in a small homeland before resettlement (idealization of home, everyday life and holidays, relations with Polish neighbors, Polish-Ukrainian conflict), organization and course of resettlement (reasons for deportation, participation of the Ukrainian national underground, inhumane conditions and the hard road to a new land), the organization of life in Ukraine (the development of a new space, consolidation through religion). Attention is drawn to the idealization of the small homeland, which is associated with a happy childhood, flat land and fertile fields, the Sian River, warm memories of celebrating Christmas, Easter. The new home is associated in respondents with semi-collapsed smoking houses, poverty, decline, chaos. One of the important factors of community consolidation in the new land is the church. Structural-typological, structural-semiotic, textual, comparative, interdisciplinary methods, field research method were used. The introduction into scientific circulation of valuable folklore materials, recorded from direct eyewitnesses of the events, natives of Zakerzonnya, is a novelty of the study.

Keywords: narrative, deportation, motive, small homeland, idealization, collective memory, folk consciousness.

Received 20.05.2020

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