The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. № 4 (154), 797—805
HORODOK AS THE CENTER OF FOLK EMBROIDERY: HISTORY, CURRENT STATE, DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS
- ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/ 0000-0002-6522-0640
- candidate of arts studies (Ph. D),
- Researcher at Folk Art Department
- Ethnology Institute National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
- 15, Svobody ave, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
- Contacts: e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. The search for the visualization of national identity typical for the beginning of the XXI century has actualized the deepening study of Ukrainian folk art. In this context embroidery is of particular interest as an expressive and affordable way decoration garment.
Paper purpose — to clarify the artistic specific of Gorodok folk embroidery in the historical aspect, to study the main stitches inherent in this center, to analyze the principles of combining them into the united composition. The research object is the Horodok folk costume components, decorated with embroidery, and the subject — the compositional features of their decor. The research techniques of work are a comprehensive approach to the chosen object of study, art analysis in the study of the features Horodok embroidery, structural and comparative methods — to determine its originality. The works of Ukrainian and art studiers as well as archival sources, graphic and photographic materials together with Horodok folk clothing preserved in state and private collections were used as the source base.
Results. The study of the preserved artefacts revealed the specifics of the decoration of Horodok folk clothing with embroidery, which differed depending on the typological group of items and the wearer sex. For example, women`s shirts and kerchiefs were decorated by so-called «Horodok Stitch», which was based on combination of loop stitch with free fill stitch. For «bavnnytsia» (embroidered band used as a part of headwear) decoration was used «Bavnnytsia Stitch» — some kind of counted-thread fill stitch. In outerwear decor stitches of linear outlining are prevailed. There was backstitch, basting stitch, chain stitch, catch stitch etc. For each of the counted stitches their own composition as well as the place on the items were inherent. Each of these stitches had its own colour. In girls’ and women’s shirts and kerchiefs, the combination of red and white with small drops of blue or black prevailed. «Bavnytsias» were most often embroidered by red or blue threads. The most restrained in colour was the outerwear decor. In this case, most often used unbleached linen or black cotton threads.
Conclusion. Horodok embroidery is characterized by a significant variety of compositions and an individual approach to the decoration of different types of folk clothing. Differentiation principle, as well as expediency and artistic moderation, based on the comparison of filled with embroidery and clean planes can be successfully applied to modern clothing, giving it elegance and unique individuality.
Keywords: Opillia, Horodok, folk embroidery, «Horodok stitch», motif, composition, colouring.
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