« 2021. # 4 (160)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2021. № 4 (160), 783—791


DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2021.04.783



  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9685-3953
  • Candidate of History, Associate Professor,
  • Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,
  • Department of Modern and Contemporary History
  • of Foreign Countries,
  • 1, Universytetska str., 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
  • Contacts: е-mail: zoja_baran@ukr.net

Abstract. Introduction. The beginning of the last decade of the XX-th century marked by significant geopolitical changes in Europe. United Kingdom as an influential participant of international relations system was forced to seek answers to new challenges.

Problem Statement. The British government positively assessed Gorbachev’s reforms and considered the existence of a unitary USSR expedient, viewing it as a counterweight to a united Germany and the maintenance of centralized control over nuclear weapons.

Purpose. The article analyzes the attitude of the British politics to the formation of Ukraine’s independence in 1990—1991.

Methods. The general scientific methods of analysis and synthesis, as well as special scientific comparative-historical and chronological methods are used in the work. The author adheres to the principle of historicism.

The source base of this research was the speeches and statements of the leaders of Great Britain, transcripts of parliamentary debates.

Results. The British Thatcher’s government, despite the intensification of Ukraine’s movement towards independence, continued to perceive it exclusively as part of the Soviet Union. Nevertheless, official London recognized the right of the Baltic States to independence. The problem of relations with the newly formed states became relevant for British government after the «parade of sovereignties». Some Scottish politicians, when discussing the problem of the collapse of the USSR, even put on the agenda the issue of Scottish self-determination. The debate in the British Parliament at that time has highlighted the priority of nuclear safety:someConservatives and Labor parliamentarians stressed the need to recognize and assist Ukraine’s independence, emphasizing the Ukrainian government’s intention to build a state without nuclear weapons, unlike Russia.

My key research conclusions are based on the thesis that in the foreign policy of the British government relations with Ukraine remained secondary and its decision depended on the position of the European community as a whole.

Keywords: Great Britain, M. Gorbachev, J. Major, USSR, M. Thatcher, Ukraine.

Received 28.07.2021


  • Bilousov, M. (2000). Diplomatic mission of Ukraine in Great Britain: the first steps (1992—1994). Scientific bulletin of the Diplomatic academy of Ukraine, 4, 32—46. Retrieved from: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Nvdau_2000_4_6 (Last accessed: 22.02.2021) [in Ukrainian].
  • Krushynskyj, V. (2005). British-Ukrainian relations on European integration. Actual problems of international relations: collection of scientific works, 57 (1), 103—111 [in Ukrainian].
  • Grubinko, A. (2007). Ukrainian-British relations in 1991—2004 (political and military cooperation). Manuscript. Thesis for a candidate degree in historical sciences, speciality 07.00.02 World History. The Kyiv Slavonic University. Retrieved from: http://dspace.wunu.edu.ua/handle/316497/841Грубінко А.В. КТІДП дисертація.pdf (Last accessed: 26.02.2021) [in Ukrainian].
  • Cherinko, І. (2009). Ukrainian-British relations: History and the present. Scientific notebooks of I. Kuras Institute of Political and ethno-national studies of National Academy of sciences of Ukraine, 43, 313—321. Retrieved from: http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/13024/25-Cherinko.pdf (Last accessed: 22.02.2021) [in Ukrainian].
  • Powell, Ch. D. Secret. Prime minister. Relations with president Bush: German unification. 5.03.1990. Retrieved from: https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/documents/dec-16/Prem-19-3000.pdf (Last accessed: 01.07.2020).
  • Moore, Ch. (2019). Margaret Thatcher: The Authorized Biography (Vol. 3: Herself Alone). New York: Alfred Knopf.
  • Thatcher, M. Speech to Ukrainian Supreme Soviet. 09.06.1990. Thatcher Archive: speaking text. Retrieved from: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/108116 (Last accessed: 01.07.2020).
  • Thatcher, M. Remarks visiting Kyiv. 09.06.1990. Thatcher Archive: speaking text. Retrieved from: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/108114 (Last accessed: 01.07.2020).
  • Thatcher, M. TV Interview for Central TV (visiting Kyiv). 09.06.1990. Thatcher Archive: speaking text. Retrieved from: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/108115, доступ отримано 1 липня 2020).
  • Thatcher, M. Speech at Ukrainian Government lunch in Kyiv. 09.06.1990. Thatcher Archive: speaking text. Retrieved from: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/108113 (Last accessed: 01.07.2020).
  • The Parliamentary debates: House of Commons official report. London, 1990. USSR (Prime Minister’s Visit). Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa /cm198990/cmhansrd/1990-06-12/Debate-1.html (Last accessed: 01.07.2020.
  • Thatcher, M. HC Stmnt: [Prime Minister’s Visit to the Soviet Union]. 12.06.1990. Thatcher Archive: speaking text. Retrieved from: https://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/108121 (Last accessed: 01.07.2020).
  • Renwick, R. (2013). A journey with Margaret Thatcher: foreign policy under the Iron Lady. London: Biteback Publishing. Retrieved from: https://tmbukz.ga/book.php?id= ygeuAwAAQBAJ (Last accessed: 01.07.2020).
  • (1991). The Parliamentary debates: House of Commons official report (Vol. 198). London. Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199192/cmhansrd/1991-11-01/Debate-5.html (Last accessed: 21.02.2021).
  • Queen Elizabeth II. 1991 Queen’s Speech. Retrieved from: http://www.ukpol.co.uk/queen-elizabeth-ii-1991-queens-speech/ (Last accessed: 21.02.2021).
  • The Parliamentary debates. House of Commons. Official report in the fifth session of the fiftieth parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northen Ireland (which opened 25 june 1987) fortieth year of the reign of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. Sixth series (Vol. 198). First volume of session 1991—92. Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199192/cmhansrd/1991-10-31/Debate-1.html (Last accessed: 21.02.2021).
  • House of Lords. Address in Reply to Her Majesty’s Most Gracious Speech HL Deb 04 November 1991 (Vol. 532). Retrieved from: https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/lords/1991/nov/04/address-in-reply-to-her-majestys-most (Last accessed: 22.02.2021).
  • House of Commons. Nuclear Defence HC Deb 22 November 1991 (Vol. 199). Retrieved from:https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1991/nov/22/nuclear-defence (Last accessed: 22.02.2021).
  • Engagements HC Deb 12 December 1991 (Vol. 200). Retrieved from: https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1991/dec/12/engagements (Last accessed: 22.02.2021).
  • House of Commons. Debates. 18 December 1991. Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199192/cmhansrd/1991-12-18/Debate-4.html (Last accessed: 25.02.2021).
  • Written Answers to Questions Wednesday 18 December 1991 Ukraine. Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm199192/cmhansrd/1991-12-18/Writtens-3.html (Last accessed: 22.02.2021).
  • (1991, 05.12). Svoboda, 231. Ukrainian Daily. Jersey City and New York [in Ukrainian].
  • Hamilton, K. The Know How Fund. The early years. Historians, records and historical services. April 1997. Retrieved from: https://issuu.com/fcohistorians/docs/hpopub_2 26/02/2021 (Last accessed: 26.02.2021).
  • (1998). Ukraine in the international arena: a collection of do­cu­ments and materials (1991—1995), 2. Kyiv [in Ukra­inian].
  • Olszanski, T.-A. (2003). Trud niepodleglosci. Ukraina na przelomie tysiacleci. Krakow: Instytut studiow strategicznych [in Polish].
  • Wilson, A. (2014). Ukraine Crisis. What it means for the West. London: Yale University press New Haven.
  • Treaty of Adrianopole — charges against viscount Palmerston. The Order of the Day for resuming the Adjourned Debate on Mr. Anstey’s Motion for an Address for Papers relating to the Treaty of Adrianople was read. House of Commons. HC Deb 01.03.1848. Vol. 97. Column 122. Retrieved from: https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1848/mar/01/treaty-of-adrianople-charges-against#S3V0097P0_18480301_HOC_8 (Last accessed: 12.04.2021).


Our authors
Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »