The Ethnology Notebooks. 2022. № 1 (163), 123—137
- ORCID ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1900-8948
- Doctor of Sciences in History, Senior Researcher
- of the Institute of Ethnology
- of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
- in the Department of Historical Ethnology,
- 15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
- Contacts: e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract. One of the important components of every building is the roof. The design features of the roof, the shape, the proportion of its mass to the volume of living space, the nature and material of the coating in combination with other typological features give a certain ethnic nuance to the architecture of housing, especially its ethnographic differences. Despite the fact that the same building materials (rye straw, wood, reeds and grasses) were used to cover homes throughout Ukraine, the technique of covering was quite diverse in different ethnographic regions. Therefore, finding out the specifics of the technique and technology of roofing within certain ethnographic groups of Ukrainians today is quite relevant.
In the proposed exploration, the author aims to clarify the features of roofing materials, specific features of techniques and technologies of roofing in the Boikivshcyna region, as well as to identify local and national features. The object of the study is the traditional housing of the boikos’, and the subject — the arrangement of its coverage. The methodological basis of the study is the principle of historicism in combination with elements of structural and functional analysis and the use of basic methods of ethnological science: typological, comprehensive and retrospective analysis, historical reconstruction and more. The study area covers the entire territory of Boikivshchyna within Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk, Zakarpattia regions, as well as the former Liske and Ustyrytsya counties (now the territory of Poland). Researchers of the traditional architecture of Boikivshchyna mostly considered upon the declared problem quite occasionally, without paying due attention to it, so the basis of our work is the field material we have collected.
The roofs of Boikos’ houses were usually covered with rye straw. Sporadically wood was used for this purpose (cut or knee tables, «hont», shingles). Spring and winter ryes were used to sew roofs. Rye sheaves of two types were used: sheaves tied at the ear to the head (“holovachky”, «kytytsi»), which were placed on the roof root down (which gave a stepped surface) and sheaves tied closer to the root («pleskachky») — they were laid on the roof surface with the ear down (the texture of the roof in this case was smooth). For the most part, «kytytsi» were tied to the armor with straw oars. There were other techniques of sewing «kytytsi» — «under the rod», «under the pole» and so on. In some areas, the poorest sections of the peasantry covered their roofs with «rods under the pale». For this purpose they could also use crushed straw («vnatrus» technique). When covering the roof, Boikos’ often combined several techniques in one building («kytytsi» and «pleskachky»; «kytytsi» and «vnatrus», etc.), and often combined straw and wood.
Keywords: Boikivshchyna, roof, sheaves, «merva» straw, roof ridge, tables, shingles.
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