2020 #6 Mushketyk L.
The Ethnology Notebooks. 2020. # 6 (156), 1328—1343
- ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5958-0044
- Doctor of Phylological Sciences, Corresponding Member
- of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
- Leading Researcher of the Maxim Rylsky Institute
- of Art Studies, Folklore and Ethnology
- National Academy of Scienses of Ukraine
- 2-B, Mykilsko-Slobidska str., 02002, Kyiv, Ukraine,
- e-mail: email@example.com
Today gender issues are becoming relevant, among others, gender and age patterns of behavior, which are studied on the examples of the existence of different communities of the past and present. Views on the man and woman purpose, their behavioral roles and moral dimensions of the expansive were reflected in folk lyric and household songs, calendar and wedding poetry, folk tales and paremias.
The purpose and objectives of the proposed study is consideration on the material of folklore works the main behavioral roles of spouses in the Ukrainian family of the XIX — early XX centuries, analysis of oral poetic plots and motives, characters, etc. in the context of gender relations, customary law, religious postulates, universal moral and ethical criteria.
The method of work has a complex, interdisciplinary character, among others the methods of ethnoethics and ethnopsychology, principles of philological, imagological analysis are applied. The object of research is the plots and motives of folklore works, which deal with the division of labor and responsibilities, the situation of «additional confrontation» in the family.
The subject is an artistic reflection of the views of the peasantry on the purpose of husband and wife, their joint representation of those virtues that were considered ideal in society.
Folklore depicts mainly the problems of a failed marriage, an unhappy marriage, descriptions of the suffering of both women and men. Society’s rejection of divorce led to another, greater sin — the murder of a husband or wife, which is verbalized in the artistic space of folk ballads. The formed division of labor and responsibilities had a significant moral content, its purpose was to raise the authority of the man as head of the family, to preserve its prestige (stories «about women’s and men’s work»). The community was also condemned for marital fidelity in marriage, the tendency to adultery is traditionally ridiculed by the people in anti-religious works, shameful songs and songs about the relationship between godparents, old husband and young wife, and so on.
The novelty of the work is to attract new data to the study of ethnoethics, gender and age behavioral roles in peasant society.
Keywords: spouses, behavioral roles, folklore, genres, women’s destiny, work, betrayal.
- Antonovych, V., Todiychuk, O., & Ulianovskyi, V. (2 eds.). (1995). Three folk national types. My confession: Selected historical and journalistic works (Pp. 91—101). Kyiv: Lybid [in Ukrainian].
- Petrov, V. (1928). New Ukrainian versions of the legend of the evil women origin. Ethnographic Bulletin (Vol. 6, pp. 55—66). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
- Krasikov, M. (1998). «Stupid woman» in Slobozhan folk tales. Gender research, 1, 271—284 [in Russian].
- Franko, I. (1955). Female captivity in Rus folk songs. In Selected articles on folk art (Pp. 107—142). Kyiv: Vyd-vo AN URSR [in Ukrainian].
- Hnatyuk, V. (1922). A song about an infertile mother and unborn children. Notes of Taras Shevchenko scientific society (Vol. 133, pp. 173—224) [in Ukrainian].
- Dei, O. (Ed.). (1988). Ballads: Family and household relations. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
- Gaidai, M. (1972). Folk ethics in the folklore of the Eastern and Western Slavs. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
- Skrypnyk, N. (2014). Verbalization of concepts of folk morality in Ukrainian folklore. The thesis for the academic degree of Doctor of Philological Sciences. Ivano-Frankivsk[in Ukrainian].
- Razumtseva, H. (2004). Moral and ethical views of the Ukrainian people according to folklore sources: axiological aspect. The thesis for the academic degree of Doctor of Philosophical Sciences [in Ukrainian].
- Sukovata, V. (2004). Satirical images of women in fairy-tale folklore: gender aspect. Ethnographic notebooks, 5—6, 763—768[in Ukrainian].
- Mushketyk, L. (2014). Characters of the Ukrainian folk tale. Kyiv: Ukrainskyi pysmennyk[in Ukrainian].
- Kis, O. (2012). Woman in traditional Ukrainian culture. Lviv: Instytut narodoznavstva NAN Ukrainy[in Ukrainian].
- Ihnatenko, I. (2012). Woman and her unborn children: traditional beliefs and ideas of Ukrainians about contraception and abortion. In Folk culture of Ukrainians: human life cycle: historical and ethnological research: in 5 vols. Maturity: Femininity, female subculture (Vol. 3, pp. 244—257).Kyiv: Duliby [in Ukrainian].
- Kopanytsia, L. (2012). On Ukrainian sensitivity as a spiritual and cultural dominant. Literature. Folklore. Problems of poetic (Issue 36, pp. 137—144) [in Ukrainian].
- (1872). Proceedings of an ethnographic and statistical expedition to the Western Russian Territory, equipped by the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. South-West Department. Materials and research collected by P. Chubinskiy (Vol. 4, 2010; Vol. 5, 2011. Vol. 7, 2011). SPb.: Issued by Bezobrazov and company [in Russian].
- Tantsura, G. (Ed.). (1965). Yavdokha Zuikha Songs. Kyiv: Naukova dumka [in Ukrainian].
- Kostomarov, N. (1890). Family life in the works of the South Russian folk song creation. Literary heritage. Autobiography of N. Kostomarov: Poems, scenes, historical passages, Little Russian folk poetry, the latest work (Pp. 287—477). SPb. [in Russian].
- Dei, O. (Еd.). (1981). Wooden miracle: Folk tales. Uzhhorod: Karpaty [in Ukrainian].
- (1982). Ukrainian folk songs in the records of Sofia Tobilevych. Kyiv: Naukova dumka[in Ukrainian].
- (1854). Folk South Russian songs: Published by Amvrosiy Metlinsky. Kyiv: Universit. tipogr.[in Ukrainian].
- Miloradovych, V. (1904). Life of a Lubny peasant. Kiev antiquity, 5, 264—304 [in Russian].
- (1962). Ukrainian songs published by Maksymovych. Kyiv: Vyd-vo AN URSR[in Ukrainian].
- Svientsitskyi, I. (1912). Funeral mourning. Ethnographic collection (Vol. 31—32, pp. 1—129)[in Ukrainian].
- Chebaniuk, O. (Еd.). (1987). Calendar-ritual songs. Kyiv: Dnipro[in Ukrainian].
- Drahomanov, M. (1918). New Ukrainian songs about public affairs (1764—1880). Kyiv: Krynytsia [in Ukrainian].
- Dykariv, M. (1896). Black Sea folk tales and anecdotes. Ethnographic collection (Vol. 2, pp. 1—50) [in Ukrainian].
- Zinchuk, M. (2003). Ukrainian folk tales: tales of the Hutsul region (Book 1). Lviv: Svit [in Ukrainian].
- Jefimenko, A. (1884). Study of people’s lives. Common law (Issue 1). Moskva [in Russian].
- Balushok, V. (1998). Rites of initiation of Ukrainians and Ancient Slavs. Lviv; New-York [in Ukrainian].
- Hnatiuk, Volodymyr. (1902). Galician-Russian folk legends. Ethnographic collection (Vol. 1, 2, XI, XII). Lviv [in Ukrainian].
- Dragomanov, M. (Ed.). (1876). Little Russian folk tales and stories. Kyiv: Izd. Yuho-Zap. Otdela Imp. Heohr. Obshch-va [in Ukrainian].
- (2001). Bandurka: Ukrainian shameful songs in the records by Z. Dolenha-Khodakovskiy, M. Maksymovych, P. Lukashevych, M. Gogol. Kyiv: Dnipro [in Ukrainian].
- Levchenko, M. (Еd.). (1928). Tales and stories from Podillya: In the records of 1850—1860 (Issue I—II).Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
- Berynda, O. (Ed.). (2010). Christian morality in Ukrainian oral poetry. Lviv: PAIS [in Ukrainian].
- (2003). As it was a long time ago: Legends, stories, tales and parables of Transcarpathia in the records of I. Senko. Uzhhorod: Zakarpattia[in Ukrainian].
- Hlanta, I. (Ed.). (1982). Truth and Wrong: Tales. Uzhhorod: Karpaty [in Ukrainian].
- Dmytrenko, M. (Ed.). (1988). Humorous and satirical songs. Kyiv: Dnipro [in Ukrainian].
- Barag, L., Berezovskiy, I. Kabashnikov, K. & Novikov, N. (Ed.). (1979). Comparative Index of Plots: East Slavic Tale. Leningrad: Nauka [in Russian].
- Hans-Jörg, Uther. (Ed.). (2004). ATU — The Types of International Folktales: A Classification and Bibliography. Based on the system of Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson (Part I—III). Helsinki.