The Ethnology Notebooks. 2021. № 3 (159), 507—523
BELL TOWERS, BELLS AND THE RINGING OF CHURCH BELLS IN FOLK CULTURE OF POKUTTIA
- ORCID ID : https://orcid.org/0000 – 0001-7241-9466
- Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor
- Institute of ethnology of the National academy of sciences of Ukraine,
- Head of the modern ethnology department
- 15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine,
- Contacts: e-mail: email@example.com
Abstract. Introduction. This article provides analysis of the historiography of bell towers, on the basis of it shows a value of sacral building for history and study of building architecture, necessity of their maintenance.
Influences of styles turn out on forming of architectural character and types of bell towers, that took place in Pokuttia in XVI—XVII century and factors that influenced in XVIII century on appearance of separate building for church bells.
Bell towers are characterized by constructive decisions of the wooden churches, their types are given.
It is defined an important value of architectural character of buildings for bells, the completion of their tops. The certain patterns of ceiling are set them by pyramidal tops.
Firmness of tradition of ceiling of bell towers by pyramidal tops turns out. And when the bell towers that have the same composition principles of construction as churches appear but keep the same features of tower, completed by an octahedral tent without an intercept.
The special type of building for bells is educed in Pokuttia — an overgate bell tower on the walls posts, that took place in monasteries and performed the duty of entrance gates and bell tower. Factors that were caused to appearance of this type and representative bell towers are found out.
It is set that the variety of bell towers is given by sound sources, a canopy and an open gallery on archs around a church.
It is shown, what functions executed by Pokuttia bell towers. It is also found out genesis of origin of bell tower that had a pantry. The special attention is spared to the choice of place for a bell tower, the certain patterns of their location are set in relation to the churches of Pokuttia.
The value of ringing and bells is illuminated in a church ceremony, in the folk way of life and folk culture.
The research methodology is based on theoretical analysis, systematization and generalization, historical review and using the method of field ethnography.
Keywords: Pokuttia, building for ringing, bell towers, ringing.
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