« 2021. # 3 (159)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2021. № 3 (159), 666—674

UDK [39:069:745/749.011.26](=161.2):930.2

DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2021.03.666



  • ORCID ID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8292-202X
  • Candidate of History Arts (Ph. D),
  • Researcher at Folk Art Department
  • of Ethnology Institute of the NAS of Ukraine
  • 15, Svoboda ave., 79000, Lviv, Ukraine
  • Contacts: e-mail: oleh.bolyuk@gmail.com

Abstract. The urgency of the research topic is due to the lack of clear legal documents and guidelines of determination and pointing in relation to the account of traditional works of decorative and applied arts.

The purpose of the work is to propose a concept that indicates the specific place of monuments of decorative and applied arts in the system of cultural heritage. The object of research is the legal documents in Ukraine, which reflect the legal framework of cultural heritage. The subject of research is the terminological apparatus of cultural heritage. The methodological basis of the study is hermeneutics and analytical method, information, system and axiological approaches and terminological principle.

Cultural heritage is a permanent process, based on the tradition of creativity and ability to accumulate current trends of social development. Some sources of documentary documentation on heritage protection were studied. The definition of monuments of the Ukrainians’ traditional folk decorative and applied art indicates their place in the cultural heritage, which are not divided into «material» and «non-material».

The sources of the paper are legal documents which provide the terminological apparatus for determining heritage. Foreign publications have been analysed, and they support the view that the concept of cultural heritage cannot be divided according to their physical materiality. The definition of Ukrainian ethnic heritage, where the key place belongs to sights of arts and crafts, is offered.

Material artefacts in this creative domain are the least protected ones, so «black archaeology» and «black market» blossom.

The study of legal documents has been revealed various aspects of the inaccuracy of the definition of cultural heritage monuments.

The temporary signs of heritage as well as other characteristics are to be taken into account: material and spiritual values; ethnically-local, national, global belonging; the concept of number and degree of uniqueness; the possibility of mobility and the method of collection. These errors in the legal documents on cultural heritage will give grounds to improve laws concerning heritage protection.

The results promote the shaping of optimal strategy for the independent electronic «Register of Cultural Values of Ethnic Heritage of the Ukrainians».

In the future, the broad analysis of the state of maintening monuments is possible on the example of private collections. The manifesto is being prepared for the owners of the collections.

Keywords: heritage, ethnos, Ukrainians, collection, defi­nition.

Received  3.06.2021


  • (1995). Law of Ukraine «On museums and museum affairs». Report of Supreme Council of Ukraine, 25, 191. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/249/95-%D0%B2%D1%80 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (2000, July 20). Provision on the Museum Fund of Ukraine, 1147). Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/ show/1147-2000-%D0%BF. (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (2000). Law of Ukraine «On Protection of Cultural Heritage». Report of Supreme Council, 39, 333. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/1805-14 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (1999). Law of Ukraine «On export, import and return of cultural values». Report of Supreme Council of Ukraine, 48, 405. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/ 1068-14 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (2016). Law of Ukraine «On scientific and scientific-technical activities». Report of Supreme Council, 3, 25. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/848-19 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (1988, 4 october). Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. (Convention ratified by Presidium of the Supreme Council, 6673-XI (6673-11). Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_089 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (2008, 6 march). Convention concerning the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (UKR/RUS) (on Convention Act see. Law, 132-VI (132-17). Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/995_089 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (2016, october 19). Resolution of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. 723, Kyiv) «On approval of the procedure about the order of determination of scientific objects that present national acquisition and confession such that lost an action, some resolutions of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine». Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/723-2016-%D0%BF#n9 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • Smith, L. (2011). El «espejo patrimonal».ї ilusiуn narcisistao reflex i ones mъltiples? Antipod. Rev. Antropol. Arqueol, 12, 39—63. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.org.co/pdf/antpo/n12/n12a04.pdf (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Spanish].
  • Ananiev, V.G. (2014). A theoretical comprehension of heritage in modern foreign historiography: «Authorized Discourse of Heritage» Laurajane Smith. Scientific messages of the Kazan university, 156 (3), 232—240 [in Russian].
  • Blank, T.J. (2009). Folklore and the Internet: Vernacular expression in a Digital World. Logan; Utah: Utah state University Press.
  • Kepin, D. (2013). New look at the monument studies as a science. Bulletin board, 4, 23—25 [in Ukraine].
  • Zaharovskyy, O. (2019). Cultural heritage as a tourist sightseeing resource: main categories and classification features. Bulletin of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts. Series: Tourism, 2 (2), 117—125 [in Ukraine].
  • Rudenko, S. (2013). Concept of «monument studies». Cultural Studies, Linguistics, Musicology, 1, 46—53 [in Ukraine].
  • Indutny, V. (2008). Distributed theory of evaluation of cultural monuments. Valuable and ornamental stones, 51 (1), 2—18 [in Ukraine].
  • Indutny, V., & Pohodyascha, A. (2017). Common problems in the protection of cultural heritage of Ukraine and authorization of museum objects. Scientific Bulletin of National Museum of History in Ukraine, 1 (2), 188—193 [in Ukraine].
  • Chernets, V.G., Karpov, V., & others (Eds.). (2019). Scientific attribution of art works, examination and evaluation of cultural values. Materials of scientific and practical. сonf. (Kyiv, 24—25 October). Kyiv: NAKKKiM Association of art critics, experts, valuers and restorers [in Ukraine].
  • Bolyuk, O., Condraticova, L. (Ed.). (2020). Monuments of church art in the cultural heritage of Ukrainians. Yesterday’s cultural heritage — contribution to the development of a sustainable tomorrow’s society: International scientific conference dedicated to European Heritage Days (Chisinau, September 22—23, 2020 ат) (Pp. 130—135). Iasi; Chisinau [in Russian].
  • Bolyuk, О., Pavliuk, S., Nykorak, O., Herus, L., & others (Eds.). (2020). Church Decorative and Ceremonial Objects of the Ukrainians in the Digital Heritage: a Mnemonic Function. IV International Interdisciplinary Correspondence Conference «Folk Art of XXI Century: Actual Research Directions»: Program (P. 5). Lviv: Ethnology Institute NAS Ukraine [in Ukraine].
  • Bolyuk, O. (2018). The current status of creative practices of Ukrainian arts and crafts (narrative of internet sources): The first question: attempts to classify useful information. The Ethnology notebooks, 140 (2), 339—343. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2018.02 [in Ukraine].
  • Bolyuk, O. (2019). Collectionist vs museologist (Based on gathering of folk clothes). The Ethnology notebooks, 145 (1), 168—178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.01.168 [in Ukraine].
  • Fedorchuk, O., Bolyuk, O., Valashkova, N., & Pohunek, J. (2020). Folk culture of Ukrainians of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in the ethnographic collection of Frantishek Rzhehorzh from the 1980s and 1990s. Czech people, 107 (1), 71—92. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21104/CL.2020.1.0 [in Czech].
  • List of UNESCO World Heritage sites in Ukraine. Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_World_Heritage_Sites_in_Ukraine (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • Ukrainian objects in the previous list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Retrieved from: https://unesco.mfa.gov.ua/spivrobitnictvo/ukrayinski-obyekti-u-poperednomu-spisku-vsesvitnoyi-spadshchini-yunesko (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • Kot, S.I. Cultural heritage. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine. Retrieved from: http://www.history.org.ua/? termin=Kulturna_Spadschina (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • Kuchmaeva, I.K. (1987). Cultural Heritage: Modern problems. Moscow: Science [in Russian].
  • A Code of Conduct of the National List of elements of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Ukraine. Retrieved from: http://mincult.kmu.gov.ua/control/uk/publish/officialcategory?cat_id=245336262 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • (2011). Law of Ukraine «On Culture». Report of Supreme Council of Ukraine, 24, 168. Retrieved from: https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2778-17 (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • Webinar 3 «How to determine the volume (borders) of element NKS». Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/WWB_ve9ua5g (Last accessed: 08.05.2020) [in Ukraine].
  • Bilodid, I.K. (Ed.). (1970—1980). Unique. In Ukrainian dictionary: in 11 volumes (Vol. 10, p. 451). Kyiv: Naukova Dumka [in Ukraine].
  • Pavliuk, S., Herus, L., Fedorchuk, O., & Kutsyr, T. (3 eds.). (2019). Tradition Culture of Ukrainians in Researches by Folk Art Department of the Ethnology Institute of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (1992—2018): Bibliography. Lviv: the Ethnology Institute of the NAS of Ukraine [in Ukraine].
  • Hriffen, L., & Titova, O. (2013). Monument studies in the system of sciences. Bulletin of Taras Shevchenko of the National University of Kyiv. Science, 131 (4), 9—14 [in Ukraine].


Our authors
Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »

Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Daily bread baking of ukrainians in the south-western ethnographical region at the late XIX to early XXI cc.
The paper has dealt with analytic study in prescriptions, signs, customs, methods, ways of selection, procurement and some peculiarities in usage of subsidiary means — water, firewood and leaves in bread baking. The final aim of the mentioned actions had been (and still is) selection of the means and ingredients fit, by their characteristics, for the backing of bread. The paper has demonstrated dependence of bread backing subsi­diary means criteria from the folk nutritional standards and world outlook stereotypes as well as from regional social and economic, natural and geographical factors and peculiarities of material culture.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »