« 2018. #4 (142)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2018,  № 4 (142), 939–948

UDK 75.03+7.07–05(477.87) А. Кашшай


Received 07.07.2018



Matveeva Julia Genadiivna, a candidate of study of art,

associate professor

of department, is a design and fine art

The Kharkiv national university of municipal economy

of the name of О.M. Beketova

61002, Kharkiv, Kulykivs’kyi lowering, 12, Ukraine

Contacts: e-mail:

 Abstrakt. The aim of work is to understand iconographic, historical and cultural principles according to which a fabric, called in icono¬graphy «velum», began to play a significant role in the church art of the Byzantine tradition. Its origin is de–rived from real fabrics used in the Mediterranean culture. They include curtains on a ciborium, curtains on the door of a church and curtains on its columns, which originally appeared in iconography as real objects. Gradually the cultural role of curtains decreased but they remained in iconography as symbols. Since the connection with the real objects had already been lost, the images of these fabrics began to acquire fantastic exaggerated forms, but the principles of their symbolic use in iconography remained. Symbolism of the veils is associated with their primary use – separation of a sacred space, a transition from one space to another one, a combination of two symbolically different zones of an icon.

 Keywords: icon, velum, curtain, fabric, ciborium.


Beliaev, D. (Ed.). (1891). Ocherky, materyaly i zametky po vyzantyjskym drevnostiam (Knyha 1). Sankt–Peterburh: Typohrafyia Ymperatorskoj Akademyy Nauk [in Russian].
Velum. (2004). In Pravoslavnaia entsyklopedyia (T. 7, p. 537). Moskva [in Russian].
Herman Konstantynopol’skyj. (1995). Svt Skazanie o Tserkve y rassmotrenye taynstv. Moskva: Martys [in Russian].
Zhehyn, L.F. (1970). Yazyk zhyvopysnoho proizvedenyia. Moskva: Iskusstvo [in Russian].
Lazarev, V.N. (1986). Istoriia vyzantijskoj zhyvopisi. Moskva: Iskusstvo [in Russian].
Matveeva, Iu.H. (2016). Dekoratyvnye tkani v mozaikakh Ravenny: semantyka y kul’turno–smyslovoj kontekst. Kiev: Dukh i litera [in Russian].
Taft, R.F. (2010). Upadok prychascheniia v Vyzantii i otdalenie myrian ot liturhicheskoho dejstva: prychina, sledstvie ili ni to, ni druhoe? (D. Zanaveshennyj altar’). In Stat’i. (T. 1: Liturhyka, pp. 342–365.). Omsk: Holovanov [in Russian].
Fylatov, V.V. (1996). Kratkij ikonopysnyj illiustrirovannyj slovar’. Moskva: Prosveschenie [in Russian].
Shalyna, Y.A. (2000). Vkhod «Sviataia Sviatykh» i vizantijskaia altarnaia prehrada. In Lidov A.M. (Ed.), Ikonostas: Proiskhozhdenie – razvitie – symvolika (pp. 52–84). Moskva: Prohress–Tradytsyia [in Russian].
Yazykova, Y.K. (1994). Bohoslovie ikony. Moskva: Izdatel’stvo Obschedostupnoho Pravoslavnoho Unyversyteta [in Russian].
Kazdan, A. (1991). Velum. In The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium (Vol. 3.).  New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lamp, G.W.H. (1961). Patristic Greek Lexicon. Oxford: At the Clarendon Press.
Sophocles, A.E. (1992). Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods. In Georg Olms Verlag Hildeshem. Zыrich; New York.
Migne, J.P. (Ed.). (1863). Patrologia curcus completes. Ser. Graeca (T. 108.). Paris.
Evans, H.C., & Wixom W.D. (Eds.). (1997). The Glory of Byzantium. Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era.  New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Wessel, K. Ciborium. (1966). Reallexikon zur byzantinischen Kunst. Unter Mitwirkung von Marcel Restle Herausgegeben von Klaus Wessel. (Band 1, pp. 1055–1068). Stuttgart: Anton Hierseman [in German].
Andrej Rublev. Blahoveschenie. Retrieved from: (Last accessed: 20.06.2018).
Velum. Retrieved from: (Last accessed: 20.06.2018).
Manuscript – Vat. gr. 1613. Retrieved from: (Last accessed: 20.06.2018).


Our authors
Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Traditional folk clothes of velikobychkovsky hutsuly of XIX — the first half of XX century
In the study based upon numerous field materials, literature sources as well as ethnographic, historio-cultural and regional museum collections has been performed complex analysis in traditional folk clothes by Hutzul population of Velyky Bychkiv village in Transcarpathian region. Detailed descriptions of femi­nine and masculine clothing complexes of the mentioned area have been presented. In characterizing of those main attention has been paid to the detail of cut in separate components of dress; cut of feminine shirt has been added as an illustration.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »

On bessarabian and moldavian ukrainians in the studies of historical ethnography
The article has thrown some light upon a sum of scientific findings got during XIX to XXI cc. in historio-ethnographic studies of Bessarabia and Moldavian Ukrainians. In the pre­sent paper has been given author’s answer to the problem of lacking progress as for the numerous themes concerning Ukrainians. State and achievements of the research-works in Ukrainians’ material and spiritual culture by the scientists of Moldavia and Ukraine through the years of independence has been exposed.
Read »