Archive

« 2019. #2 (146)

The Ethnology Notebooks. 2019, 2 (146), 472—480

UDK 930.2:[37.014.011.3-051(47+57)”19″(093.2)
DOI https://doi.org/10.15407/nz2019.02.472

«DOCUMENTARY SURVEY» THE EVERYDAY LIFE OF SOVIET TEACHERS

HODOVANSKA Oksana

ORCID ID https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8297-2414

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher

Department of Social AnthropologyEthnology Institute of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

15, Svobody Avenue, 79000, Lviv, Ukraine

Contacts: e-mail: hodovanska@gmail.com

Abstract. The study of Soviet everyday life is one of the most important directions of contemporary Ukrainian humanities. There is a significant difference in reasoning and personal perception of the disadvantages and advantages of Soviet power. The subject and depth of criticism of this power clearly correlates with the place of residence and ethnicity. Territorial localization of the research testifies the difference in the reasoning and personal perception of the disadvantages and advantages of Soviet power.

At the same time the historical-anthropological approach makes it possible to attract the widest research base. In the article, the everyday life is researched in two dimensions — material and spiritual (mental).

The purpose of the proposed article is to familiarize with official documents of the Soviet authorities in the state regional archives of Ukraine. The main task is to analyze office documents as one of the sources of constructing the everyday life of teachers in Soviet times. For its implementation, step-by-step actions were performed — the information potential of the documents was clarified and the essence of everyday life in the normative documentation was established. It was investigated the official Soviet language «documentary story» about everyday life and discovered the local manifestations of everyday life of teachers. The object of the research is the official documents, and the subject — their content. The basis of the work is the archived documents studied by the author. In the article, the author first published the cited documents.

«Documentary story» is one of the sources of constructing everyday life of teachers. First of all, documents speak the language of numerals, have signs of anti-communicative and militaristic practices, have their own content and are entirely a product of Soviet time. On the basis of archival documents, we assert that the material conditions of teachers occupy a non-dominant place in the structure of the Soviet system of education.

Keywords: everyday life, Soviet time, teachers, normative documents, archives.

Received 16.02.2019

REFERENCES

Yefimenko, H. (2012). Everyday life of teaching. The Ukrainian Soviet Society of the 1930’s. Essays on Everyday Life. Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
Kahal’na, M.V. (2015). Everyday life of teachers of the Ukrainian SSR in the second half of the 1950s — the first half of the 1960’s. (Kand. istor. nauk. diss. abstr.). Kyiv [in Ukrainian].
Koliastruk, O. (2010). Intellectuals of the Ukrainian SSR in the 1920s: everyday life. Kharkiv: Rarytety Ukrayiny [in Ukrainian].
Kis, O. Telling the Untold: Representations of Ethnic and Regional Identities in Ukrainian Women’s Autobiographies. (download. doc file). Retrieved from: http://www.womensmemory.net/english/news.asp (Last accessed: 07.02.2019).
Laas, N. (2010). Social history of the post-war Ukraine: the experience of Ukrainian and English-language historiography. Postwar Ukraine: essays on social history (second half of the 1940s — mid-1950’s). (Kn. 1, part 1—2). Kyiv: Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine [in Ukrainian].
DAIFO. F. R-3. Op. 2. Spr. 111. Ark. 1—7. Orders of the Ministry of Education of the USSR on planning and financing. May 11 — August 23, 1949 [in Ukrainian].
DAIFO. F. R-3. Op. 2. Spr. 263. Ark. 1—110. Correspondence with the Ministry of Education of the USSR on planning and financing. January 5 — December 22, 1952 [in Ukrainian].
DALO. F. R-163. Op. 4. Spr. 51. Ark. 1—157. Report of the Lviv regional department of public education on the work of schools for the academic year 1947—1948 [in Ukrainian].
DALO. F. R-163. Op. 4. Spr. 50. Ark. 1—165. Reports on the implementation of the law on general compulsory education. 1946 year [in Ukrainian].
DALO. F. R-163. Op. 6. Spr. 5. Ark. 1—79. Information about the state of selection, placement and work with pedagogical and managerial personnel of schools of the region for 1960 year [in Ukrainian].
DALO. F. R-3243. Op. 1. Spr. 57. Ark. 1—40. Information on the status of schools in the district in 1961 year [in Ukrainian].
DAIFO. F. R-3. Op. 2. Spr. 1709. Ark. 1—11. Information on the status and work with personnel of the regional education authorities for the 1985—1986 academic year [in Ukrainian and in Russian].
DALO. F. R-163. Op. 4. Spr. 162. Ark. 1—166. Transcript of the regional meeting of the school employees of the Lviv region for 1950 year [in Ukrainian].
Masenko, L. (2017). The language of Soviet totalitarianism. Kyiv: KLIO [in Ukrainian].

Read»

Our authors
On field exploration of russian and belarusian ethnologists and etnolinguists in Ukrainian Polisia 1945—1980s
In the study based on a wide range of literary materials have been comprehensively characterised field research in Polisia of Ukraine, performed by Russian and Belarusian ethnologists during 1945—1980s as well as Moscow ethnolinguists and other researchers from ethnologic centres of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus in the course of realization of Ethnolinguistic Atlas of Polisia program. Particular attention has been paid to geography, methods, themes and research results of scientific projects.
Read »

Wax candle as ukrainian Christmas and epiphany ritualistic text
For the first time in native ethnology the article has brought some results of special study in sign functionality of a wax candle under the context of Ukrainian Christmas and Epiphany ritualistic text (ritualism of Christmas Eve, New Year, Epiphany Eve and Feast of Epiphany). The study has stated extremely high semiotic position of a wax candle as projection of Sun, mediator between the spheres of sacral and prophane elements, symbolic analogue of human existence, apotropy, cultural symbol re-establishing borders of acculturated space.
Read »

Maternity ritualism by volhynians in publications of the second half XIX to the early XXI cc.
In the article have been considered some basic landmarks for fixing and publication of ethnographic materials on the maternity rites of Volhynia with analytical study in ritual elements, their kinds and territories of origin. The article has also raised a problem of gaps in studies of maternity rites of Ukrainian historio-ethnographic Volhynia.
Read »

Boikos’ pandemonium: categories of evil deceased
In the article have been presented some research-work on peculiarities of Boikos’ traditional demonological notions as for so-called evil deceased; on the basis of field records and ethnological literary sources quite a number of scum categories have been defined as well as essential habits, modes of behavior and functions of these personages of people’s demonology.
Read »